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VOL. Ill 



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American EtHnological 


The Georgia Historical Society having, for some years, 
been in possession of several manuscript volumes of the 
late Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, the earliest agent of the 
United States for Indian Affairs, their examination and 
publication by the Society, became an object of interest. 
Accordingly, they were referred to a committee, whose 
report attested their value, as materials for the early his- 
tory of Georgia, and especially for that of the confederacy 
of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, who formerly owned 
and swayed, the southwestern portion of the State. That 
report recommended the immediate publication of one of 
these manuscripts, which the author has called "yl Sketch 
of the Creek Country in the years 1798 and 1799." As a 
member of the Society, I proposed to superintend this 
publication, and to defi-ay its expense, as the resources of 
the Society were already anticipated by the erection of a 
Library and Historical Hall. The Society did me the 
honor to accept my proposition. 

The Georgia Historical Society has now been in exist- 
ence for nine years. During that period, it has published 
two volumes of Collections and Transactions, and the 
present publication wdl constitute the first part of the 
third volume. 

The introduction to the first volume, thus alludes to 
these manuscripts of Mr. Hawkins : " In relation to the 
department of Indian history, a department so interesting 
in itself, and so intimately blended with the early settle- 
ment of this State, the Society has obtained some very 
rare and valuable manuscripts, which contain long and 
minute accounts of the manners and customs of tiie In- 
dians ; proceedings of Indian agents ; treaties with vari- 
ous tribes ; all greatly augmenting the materials of abo- 
riginal history." 

4 Introduction. 

Tlie eight volumes of manuscripts, in possession of the 
Society, attest the industry and enhghtened zeal of the 
author. He has preserved and transmitted to us, his talks 
and treaties, made with various Indian tribes ; his corres- 
pondence with the General Government and with State 
authorities ; vocabularies of aboriginal languages, and 
invaluable records of the manners, customs, rites and 
civil polity of the tribes. 

It is reported, that many valuable papers of Mr. Haw- 
kins have been irreparably lost to the world, by the burn- 
ing of his residence in the Creek country. The present 
manuscripts, it is supposed, have been preserved by their 
having been submitted to the Governor of the State, at 
Milledgeville, for his perusal. Colonel Hawkins was still 
living in the year 1825. In that year, these volumes were 
in Savannah, under the charge of Mr. Joseph Bevan, who 
had been appointed by the General Assembly "to collect, 
arrange and publish, all papers relating to the original set- 
tlement or political history of the State." I learn this 
fact from a published report of his, made to Governor 
Troup. At the decease of Mr. Bevan, they were prob- 
ably returned to the executive department at Milledge- 
ville. At the institution of the Historical Society, a for- 
tunate accident brought these valuable papers to the 
knowledge of J. K. TefTt, Esq., the corresponding secre- 
tary of the Society, and the actual cashier of the Bank of 
the State of Georgia, at Savannah. At his pressing in- 
stance, in favor of the Society, they were sohcited and 
obtained, for the Society's library. 

It is a singular fact, unparalleled in this age of printing, 
that there are five copies existing, of this " Sketch of the 
Creek Country." The most plausible motive for this cu- 
rious multiplication of written copies, was the desire of 
speculators in Indian lands, to learn the topography, re- 
sources and character of the Creek country. 

In this publication I have used the original manuscript 
of Mr. Hawkins, which has been attested by Mr. Tefft, 
who has a wide reputation for his collection of autographs, 
and for his admirable taStC in that department of aesthet- 
ics. The writing and condition of the volume, give evi- 
dence of its having been written as early as the year 


Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, was for more than 
thirty years, employed by the Government of the United 
States, in its intercourse with Indian tribes. The in- 
fluence which he obtained and exercised among these 
tribes, is forcibly stated by Mr. Gallatin: " Mr. Hawkins, 
under the modest name of 'Beloved Man of the Four Na- 
tions,^ did govern, or, at least, exercise during his life, a 
considerable influence over the Creeks, Choctaws, and 
even the Chicasaws and Cherokees." A legitimate curi- 
osity prompts me to trace the public career of a man, 
who, on the highest authority, rendered efficient and valu- 
able services to his country, for a long series of years. 

The first official notice of Mr. Hawkins, presents him 
as joint commissioner with Andrew Pickens, Joseph Mar- 
tin, and Lachlan Mcintosh, to negotiate with the Creek 
Indians, in the year 1785. They concluded the treaty of 
Galphinton. In the same year, the treaty of Hopewell 
was concluded with the Cherokees, By the treaty of 
New York, in 1790, the Creek Indians placed themselves 
under the protection of the United States, and of no other 
Power. By the treaty of Galphinton, they had acknow- 
ledged themselves to be within the limits of Georgia, and 
members of the same. These two inconsistent states of 
political relationship, and which are the origin of all sub- 
sequent controversies between the State of Georgia and 
the Indian tribes, led to the appointment, by General 
Washington, of three commissioners to treat with the 
Creek confederacy. Accordingly, he nominated to the 
Senate, in June, 1795, Benjamin Hawkins, of North Car- 

6 The Author. 

olina, George Clymer, of Pennsylvania, and Andrew 
Pickens, of South Carolina, as commissioners for that 

Mr. Hawkins was at this time, a Senator of the United 
States, from North Carolina. 

In the year 1801, he was appointed by Mr. Jefferson, 
" principal agent for Indian affairs south of the Ohio," 
and as joint commissioner with General Wilkinson and 
Andrew Pickens, he negotiated treaties with the Chica- 
saws, Choctaws and Natchez. 

Froui that period, he remained as agent of the United 
States among the Creek Indians, till the year 1816, when 
at his own request, as shown by his official letters, he was 
succeeded in that office, by David Brydie Mitchell, of 
Georgia. Colonel John Crowell succeeded this last agent ; 
and from a letter of complaint against Crowell, written 
to the War Department in 1825, by Mr. Hawkins, it ap- 
pears that he was then living in the Creek nation. I have 
not been able to learn the time of Mr. Hawkins's decease. 

From the several volumes of correspondence, official 
and private, of Colonel Hawkins, I have made some ex- 
tracts which very forcibly pourtray the high quahties of 
his mind, for the government and control of unlettered, 
semi-civilized tribes. This demands sound judgment and 
inflexible justice. An apparent indifference towards the 
women of the tribes, who are the objects of great jeal- 
ousy, is not an unimportant quality. I have been assured 
from high authority, that this was one of the sources of 
Mr. Hawkins's extraordinary influence. In another part 
of the w^orld, I have witnessed a like mfluence acquired 
by an agent of the United States, over a semi-civilized 
people. To their minds, it implies a moral superiority 
over other men, when accompanied by ordinary manly 
energies. It is a self-control, the more respected by such 
people, as it is the object of their chief indulgence, and 
of their liveliest jealousies. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Hawkins to a friend. 

CrssETUH, Nov. 25, 1797. 

A few days ago, whilst I was sorely afflicted with rheu- 
matism, so as not to be able to turn in my blanket, the 

The Author. "7 

arrival of the Queen of Tuckabatchee was announced to 
me. That town is sixty miles distant. I invited herself 
and her friends, to spend two or three days with me, which 
they did. Early one morning, she came to my bed side 
and sat down. I awoke, and she accosted me thus : 

My visit is to you ; I am a widow ; I have a son so 
high ; (holding her hand three feet from the ground ;) I 
have a fine stock of cattle, and I wish them secured for 
my use and for my son. I know you arc the Isle-chate- 
lige-osetat-chemis-te-chcmgo, (the beloved man of the Four 
JNations,) and my relations are not careful of my inter- 
ests. If you will take the direction of my aflairs, the 
chiefs have told me you may settle my stock where you 
please, and it shall be safe. When you go to Tucka- 
batchee, you will have a home. Perhaps I am too old 
for you, but I'll do any thing I can for you. I shall be 
proud of you if you will take me. If you take a young 
girl into the house I shall not like it, but I will not say 
one word ; may be I can't love her, but I won't use her 
ill. I have brought some mis-ce (cassine yupon) for you. 
I want some clothes for my boy and for myself You 
can give them to me, and make the traders take cattle for 
pay. If you direct them they won't cheat me. I was 
taken prisoner by the Chickasaws, with my boy, when he 
was so high (about two feet.) I ran off from them, and 
was seventeen days in the woods, getting to my nation. 
I had no provisions when I set out, and was hke to perish. 
When you vvere in the upper towns last year, I went 
twice to see you, and dressed myself You took me by 
the hand «nnd asked me to sit down. I wanted to speak 
to you then, but I could not. I said then I would never 
have an Iste-chate (red man.) 

I replied to her, you shall be gratified ; you may return 
home. I will have your cattle put out at a proper place, 
and I will take care of them and of ycur son. If you have 
any desire to call me cha-e-he, (my husband,) do so! But 
you must not forget, I have not yet determined to set up 
in that capacity in either of the Four Nations. But you 
are at liberty, as you already have one child, and know 
the trade, to carry it on under my name, and to choose 
any assistant you may deem suitable. The children will 
be mine and I will take care of them and of you. 

8 The Author. 

It is not customary among the Creeks to associate with 
the women ; and it is a curious fact, that there are white 
men in the nation who have been here five years, without 
ever enterinn an Indian house. I visit them, take them 
by the hand, talk kindly to them, and eat frequentl}^ with 
them. This day I had four Indian women to dine with 
me, with some chiefs and white men, a thing, they tell me, 
unknown before, to either of them. One thing I have no- 
ticed, in all I have conversed with, they have a great pro- 
pensity to call every thing by its name. And, if the con- 
current testimony of the white husbands may be relied 
on, the wcmen have much of the temper of the mule, ex- 
cept when they are amorous, and then they exhibit all the 
amiable and gentle qualities of the cat. 

Extract of a letter to William Faulkner, Esq. 

CussETUH, November 25, 1797. 

I am now, and have been in this town, which is on the 
Chattahoche, among the lower Creek towns, (an hundred 
and sixty miles from Fort Wilkinson, the residence of 
Colonel Gaither on the Ocenee,) for more than a month, 
and much engaged in the duties enjoined on me by my 
office. It is not necessary to detail to you the difficulties 
I have encountered daily, in adjusting with these people 
the differences in the way of a friendly intercourse be- 
tween them and their neighbors. The men are bred in 
habits proudly indolent and insolent ; accustomed to be 
courted, and to think that they conferred a favor when 
they were naked, by receiving clothes and comforts from 
the British agents; and they will reluctantly and with 
great difliculty, be humbled to the level of rational life. 
1 spend the day at their public places, in conversation ; or 
at my hut, where I entertain a number ; and the evenings 
I devote till midnight at the town house, to see their dan- 
cing and amusements, or at my hut, studying their lan- 
guage, or making arrangements to decide on disputed 
property, and adjusting the misunderstandings between 
the Four Nations. As business increased on me, I found 
my mind and exertions always ready to rise above it ; or 
as it would be better expressed, to be equal to my wishes, 
and even beyond my expectations. In this situation I 

The Author. 9 

had one visiter sorely afflictive, a severe attack in ray left 
leg and foot of the gout ov rheumatism, for eight or ten 
nights, sometimes not able to turn in my blankets, yet 
constantly crowded with visiters, and obliged to attend to 
the head men and warriors of twelve towns, invited to 
convene at Cowetuh, a neighboring town. 

I have one faithful assistant in Mr. Barnard, one of the 
interpreters. The white and red men are much indebted 
to his constant, persevering and honest exertions to do 
justice to all applicants. It sometimes falls to the lot of 
one man, though apparently in the humble walks of life, 
to render more effectual service to his fellow creatures, 
than thousands of his neighbors. This has been the case 
with Mr. Barnard. He was a trader in this nation before 
the war, and remained in it during the whole progress of 
it, constantly opposing the cruel policy which pressed 
these people to war with the Americans, and urged their 
being neutral. He repeatedly risked his life and fortune 
in the cause of humanity, and he remains to witness that 
the purity of his actions has given him a standing among 
the red people, which could not be purchased with 

I have, since I left you, seen much of the western coun- 
try, witnessed the downfall of a character whom I highly 
valued, when I first had the pleasure of knowing you, and 
seen a check given, I hope an effectual one, to a base 
system for the destruction of the Four Nations by the 
JE-cmi-nau-nux-uIgee, (people greedily grasping after all 
their lands,) and I have the happiness to know, that I 
have contributed much to the establishment of the well 
grounded confidence which the Four Nations have in the 
justice of the United States ; and this confidence is so 
well grounded, that the malice or wickedness of the ene- 
mies of our Government cannot destroy it. 

I may here introduce some of the appellations and epi- 
thets applied by the Creek Indians to white men, one of 
which is used in the foregoing letter. 

E-cun-nau-nux-uIgee : People greedily grasping after the 
lands of the red men, against the voice of the United States. 

Tucke-mico : The Dirt King, applied to Governor Blount 
of Tennessee. The Cherokee name of this gentleman is 

10 The Author. 

Dirt Captain ; and in both nations it arose from their 
opinion of his insatiate avidity to acquire Indian lands. 

Chesse-cup-pe-tun-ne : The Pumpkin Captain ; a name 
given to Captain Chisholm. 

E-cun-nau-au-po-po-hau : Always asking for land. This 
name was given to Governor Clark of Georgia. 

Iste-chate-li.ore-osetatc-chemis-te-chauoro : The beloved man 
of the Four Nations ; a name given to Colonel Hawkins. 

Iste-chate : Red man. 

Istc-hut-ke : White man. 

Iste-semols : Wild man ; a Seminole. 

Extract of a letter to James Burgess., Creek Interpreter. 
CussETUH, November 27, 1797. 

I have received your letter of the 14th of this month, 
in answer to mine of the 30th October. It is the first I 
have had from you. This letter you send me, I have read 
with attention ; and if you had not informed me you were 
sick, I should have supposed you were deranged in mind. 
Perhaps it is a dehrium arising from sickness ; in that 
case it is a misfortune, not a fault. If I did not believe 
something of this sort really to affect you, I would let you 
know, that if you do not know your duty, I know mine. 

Whoever heard of your being talked of about what 
was done at Coleraine ? Nobody but your own imagina- 
tion ! You were only an interpreter, and I know the In- 
dians never fault them, for doing their duty faithfully. I 
can tell you another thing. You overrate your standing, 
when you say the Indians blame you. The fact is they 
have not blamed you, and for a very obvious reason. 
The Indians do not suffer the white men in their land 
even to mention, much less to influence them in their 

Another thing. You talk of Chulapockey, and the com- 
plaint of the Indians about it, and the trifie of goods ; 
that these things must be settled before I leave the land. 
What do you mean by this stuff ? Do you not know the 
Chulapockey line was settled by Mr. Gillivray and the In- 
dians who went to New York ? Don't you know that this 
nation appointed agents to go and run the line, and that 

The Author. 11 

Bowles's* coming, prevented it ? Did you not hear the 
chiefs tell me this publicly at Coleraine ; and did you not 
know they told the truth 't 

What do you mean when you say if the Indians suffer 
you must suffer ? Have you not, as it was your duty to 
do, told them boldly and plainly, what all the interpreters 
at Coleraine were ordered to do, that the Indians have 
now nothing to fear. The United States have o-uarantied 
their country to them. Did you not hear the plan of 
government explained at Coleraine, to better the condi^ 
tion of the Indians ? And don't you know I am here 
to carry that plan into execution ? Don't you know the 
Indians took part with Great Britain against the United 
States, and did us much injury ; and that the retaliation 
on our part is to forgive them, because they were a poor, 
deluded people ; to enlighten their understandings and to 
better their condition, by assisting them with tools and im- 
plements of husbandry, and teaching them the use of 
them, by furnishing them with blacksmiths, and spinning 
wheels, cards, looms and weavers. Where have you been 
that you have forgotten these things ? Don't you know 
that we have placed an army, at great expense, to protect 
the Indians in the enjoyment of their rights, and that we 
established two stores, to supply the Indians at cost and 
charges ? 

You want me to clear you. Of what ? Can you clear 
yourself, if you have not explained these things faithfully 
to the Indians ? You cannot. You ask me to send you a 
certificate of what is done here, signed by two or three 
chiefs. What do you mean by this ? Must Iste-chate- 
lige-osetat-chamis-te-chaugo have a certificate from three 
Indians ? You are surely dreaming. 

One piece of information I can give you. The Indians 
have appointed seven commissioners to see the fine run, 
agreeably to the treaty of New York, and it will be run 
just after the new year. 

You must visit me about the 25th of next month, at the 
store on Oconee, there to explain your conduct, and re- 
ceive you salary. 


* This man Bowles, was at one time a portrait painter in Savannah. 


All tradition among the Creeks points to the country- 
west of the Mississippi, as the original habitat of those 
tribes. This universal tradition is confirmed by Du Pratz, 
Bernard Romans, Adair, Bartram and Hawkins. Our au- 
thor asserts their migration, on the authority of Tusselo- 
iah Micco, from the forks of Red river, Wcchate-hatche 
'Aufuskee. We may entirely defer to the result of Mr. 
Gallatin's investigation of this subject, as the most cor- 
rect. His comprehensive research and powerful analysis, 
have presented to the scientific world, all that can be 
known, perhaps, of that which is involved in the Cimme- 
rian darkness of ante-historical periods. In the second 
volume of the " Archseologia Americana," he says : " In 
the year 1732, when Georgia was first settled, the terri- 
tory of the Creek Confederacy, including at that time the 
Seminolcs, Avas bounded on the west by Mobile river, and 
by the ridge that separates the waters of the Tombigbee, 
from those of the Alabama ; on the north by the Chero- 
kees, on the northeast by the Savannah, and on every 
other quarter by the Atlantic and the gulf of Mexico. It is 
believed, that at the end of the seventeenth century, the 
Creeks occupied south of the 34th degree of north lati- 
tude, the eastern as well as western banks of the Savan- 

" It is not possible to ascertain, when the Confederacy 
was consolidated to that extent. It now consists of sev- 
eral tribes, speaking different languages. The Muskho- 
gees are the prevailing nation, amounting to more than 
seven-eights of the whole. The Hitchittees who reside 
on the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, though a distinct 

14 The Creek Confederacy. 

tribe, speak a dialect of the Muskhogee. The Seminoles 
or Isty-Semole, (' wild men,') who inhabit the peninsula 
of Florida, are pure Muskhogees, who have gradually de- 
tached themselves from the confederacy, but who were 
still considered as members of it, till the United States 
treated with them as an independent nation. The name 
of Seminoles was given to them, on account of their be- 
ing hunters, and attending but little to agriculture. A 
vocabulary is wanted, in order to prove conclusively, the 
identity of their language with the Muskhogee. 

" There is some diversity in the accounts given by the 
Muskhogees of their origin. The chiefs of the delega- 
tion, who attended at Washington, in the year 1826, 
agreed, that the prevailing tradition among them was, that 
the nation had issued out of a cave near the Alabama 
river. The Hitchittees said, that their ancestors had 
fallen from the sky. These modes of speaking, common 
to several of the tribes, only show that they have lost the 
recollection of any ancient migration, and that they con- 
sider themselves as aborigines. 

" The Utchees and the Natchez, who are both incorpor- 
ated in the confederacy, speak two distinct languages, 
altogether different from the Muskhogee. The Natchez, 
a residue of the well known nation of that name, came 
from the banks of the Mississippi and joined the Creeks 
less than one hundred years ago. The original seats of 
the Uchees were east of the Coosa, and probably of the 
Chattahoochee, and they consider themselves the most 
ancient inhabitants of the country. It appears certain, 
that at the beginning of the eighteenth century, they were, 
at least in part, seated on the western banks of the Sa- 
vannah. It has already been seen, that in 1736, they 
claimed the country above and below Augusta. In the 
year 1715, was that of the signal defeat of the Yamassees 
(in South Carolina.) The Yamassees were driven across 
the river, (Savannah,) and it is probable that the Uchees 
were amongst their auxiliaries, and that weakened by this 
defeat, they found it safer to remove to a greater distance 
from the English settlements, towards Flmt river," (and 

" These five languages, the Muskhogee, the Hitchittee, 
Uchee, Natchez and the Alabama or Coosada, are, it is 

The Creek Confederacy. 15 

believed, the only one spoken by the different tribes of the 
Creek confcderncy. '1 he Uchee is the most guttural, 
uncouth, and difficult to express with our alphabet and 
orthography, of any of the Indian languages within our 

" Although partial and transient collisions with the 
Creeks, occurred subsequently to the settlement of Geor- 
gia, no actual war with them took place for near fifty years. 
They took an active part in that of the Revolution, against 
the Americans, and continued their hostilities till the 
treaty concluded at Philadelphia, in 1795. They then re- 
mained at peace eighteen years ; but at the beginning of 
the last war with Great Britain, a considerable portion of 
the nation, excited, it is said, by Tecumseh, and probably 
receiving encouragement from other quarters, took arms, 
without the slightest provocation, and at first committed 
great ravages. They received a severe chastisement; and 
the decisive victories of General Jackson, at that time and 
some years later, over the Seminoles, who had renewed 
the war, have not only secured a permanent peace with 
the southern nations, but have placed them all under the 
absolute control of the United States. The Creeks and 
Seminoles, after some struggles among themselves, have 
ceded the whole of their territory, and accepted in ex- 
change, other lands beyond the Mississippi." 

Such is the succinct, but comprehensive account of the 
Creek Confederacy, by Mr. Gallatin. Bernard Romans, 
who wrote his book in 1770, says that, '* this confederacy, 
of remnants of tribes, are very cunning fellows. They 
are a mixture of Cowittas, Talepoosas, Corsas, Apalach- 
ias, Conshaes or Coosadas, Oakmulgees, Oconees, Ok- 
choys, Alibamons, Natchez, Wetumkas, Pakanas, Taen^ 
sas, ( hacsihoinas, Abekas, and other tribes." Classifying 
these numerous tribes by the science of philology, they 
must be reduced to the number of five, as Mr. Gallatin 
has shown. 

They are jealous, says Romans, of their lands, and en- 
deavor to enlarge their territories by conquest, and claim- 
ing large tracts from the Cherokees and Choctaws. They 
have foiced these two tribes into alliance, and they wish 
to unite a!! tribes and languages under one general con- 
federation or commonwealth. As an instance of their 

16 The Creek Confederacy. 

jealous policy, it may be related, that in 1764, Messrs. 
Rea and G^lphin, having contracted to supply Pensacola 
with beef, the Creeks would not allow any other cattle 
than oxen to pass through their territory. 

To my mind, it is evident, that the whole Atlantic 
coast, from the Mississippi to the country of the Six Na- 
tions, in the north, has for centuries past been the theatre 
of constant revolutions among the aborigines of the soil. 
Wars, conquests, subjugations, extinctions and productions 
of new races, migrations and new settlements, I do not 
doubt, have marked the life of western as well as of 
eastern nations. On this continent there are no Perse- 
politan, Etruscan, Egyptian or Runic inscriptions, to at- 
test the rise and decay of nations, their wars, conquests 
and migrations ; and where no records have been made 
of such movements among races and tribes, the modern 
science of comparative philology has detected, by speech, 
the far distant emigration of tribes of men, with as great 
certainty, as the comparative anatomist detects congeners, 
amon"- fossil mammals. Tluis, the An^lo-Saxon derives 
his origin through Teutonic and Zend, to Sanscrit in cen- 
tral Asia, with positive certainty. 

The historians of Carohna and Georgia, have pre- 
served some slight vestiges of the original inhabitants. 
The Shawnees appear to have been a peculiarly roving, 
romantic race. Lawson reports that the Catawbas in 
Carolina, drove back the Shawnees from the Pedee and 
Santee rivers. At one time, they were repelled by the 
Six Nations and retired to the valley of the Ohio. At 
another, they were found on the Savannah river, which 
was called Ckisketalia fan liatche ; and sometimes Sau- 
vannogee^ the name for Shawanoe. This is the report of 
Mr. Hawkins. It was called Isundiga, by the Carolina 
tribes. My own opinion is, that the river was so called, 
from the tribe of Savannahs occupying its banks; who 
belonged to the great Uchee family. There are many 
indications however, which favor the settlement of Shaw- 
nees on this river. 

Hawkins says, thai* " the village of Sauvanogee, on the 
waters of Coosa and Tallapoosa, is inhabited by Shawa- 
nee. They retain the language and customs of their 
countrymen to the northwest, and aided them in their late 

The Creek Confederacy. 17 

war with the United States. Some lichees have settled 
with them." 

Entertaining the suspicion, that these Shawanee were 
in reahty Uchees, I found confirmation in Bartram. He 
says, " their (Uchees) own national language is radically 
different from the Muscogulgee tongue ; and is called Sa- 
vanna or Savannuca, Savanogee. I was told by the tra- 
ders, that it was the same as the dialect of the Shawa- 
nese. The Uchees are in confederacy with the Creeks, 
but do not mix with them." 

The language of the Shawnese is most certainly not 
likelUchee ; and this contradiction of the traders I can- 
not well explain. Yet I have the conviction, that the tribe 
of Savannahs were Uchees. All travellers concur in as- 
signing to the Uchees great influence in the confederacy ; 
and Bartram asserts that " they excite the jealousy of the 
whole Creek union." Palachoocla or Parachoocla, the cap- 
ital of the confederacy, with two thousand inhabitants, on 
the waters of the Chattahoochee, is a very ancient Uchee 
town. There is at this day an old Indian station in Car- 
olina, on the Savannah river, called Parachoola, which is 
Uchee. Saukechih, (saltketchers,) where Governor Cra- 
ven defeated the Yamassees, is most likely to be a Uchee 
word. Indeed, until the contrary shall be proved by com- 
parative vocabularies, I shall think that the Savannahs, 
Sevannahs and Uchees, who conquered and expelled the 
Westos and Stonos, were one people with the Yamassees. 

The Yamassees were, in turn, expelled from Carolina 
by the English, and took refuge in Florida. The Yama- 
craws belonged to this tribe. The Uchees seem to have 
been a conquering people, whose tide of success havmg 
been checked, flowed back towards the west, and there 
met the advancing waves of the Muscogee emigration 
from the west, rolling eastwardly. Policy and self-pre- 
servation combined to suggest a coalition. And thus, 
from these principles, acting upon other nomadic or mi- 
grating tribes, may have sprung the powerful Creek or 
Muscogee confederacy. 

The existence of the numerous aboriginal tribes within 

the borders of the United States will, ere long, belong 

only to history. The generations of Indians that have 

passed away since the first English settlements in Amer- 


18 The Creek Confederacy, 

ica, have left no monuments to attest their dominion. 
There exist in the valleys of the great west, striking evi- 
dences of an anterior civilization, which are objects of 
wonder to the Indians of our day as well as to ourselves. 
The only vestiges of their creation, that will be left to 
posterity, are the books of missionaries printed in their 
idioms, and vocabularies, unsatisfactory but invaluable 
to science. Too much honor and praise cannot be 
accorded to those enlightened men, who have devoted 
themselves to the preservation of these vestiges which are 
to become the fossil, organic remains of intellectual hu- 
manity. Du Ponceau and Gallatin are the two names 
which stand pre-eminent in this department of scientific 
labor. The one has closed his honorable career ; the 
other still devotes, with advancing years, his philosophic 
mind to these subjects of human and scientilic interest. 
At this moment he is preparing for press a volume of 
ethnographic investigations in Cahfornia and New Mex- 
ico. The labors of the scholar and historian, will beauti- 
fully close the career of the benevolent and disciplined 

June 20, 1848. 


IN THE YEARS 1798 AND 1799. ^ 

TiiE origin of the name Creek is uncertain. The tra- 
dition is, tliat it was given by white people, from the num- 
ber of Creeks and water courses in the country. The 
Indian name is Muscoor e.* 

The Creeks came from the west. They have a tra- 
dition among them, that there is, in the fork of ]{ed 
river, west of the iMississippi, two mounds of earth ; that 
at this place, the Cussetuhs, Conetuhs and Chickasaws, 
found themselves ; that being distressed by wars with red 
people, they crossed the Mississippi, and directing their 
course eastwardly, they crossed the fidls of Tal-lapoo-sa, 
above Took-au-bat-che, settled below the falls of Chat-to- 
ho-che, and spread out from thence to Oc-mul-gec, O-co- 
nee. Savannah, and down on the seacoast, towards Charles- 
ton. Here, they first saw white people, and from hence 
they have been compelled to retire back again, to their 
present settlemejits. 

The country lying between Coosau, Tallapoosa and 
Chat-to-ho-clie, above their falls, is broken. The soil is 
stiffs, with coarse gravel, and in some places, stone. The 
trees are post oak, white and black oak, pine, hickory 
and chesnut, all of them small. The whole is well wa- 
tered, and the rivers and creeks have rocky beds, clad in 
many places with moss greatly relished by cattle, horses 
and deer, and are margined with cane or reed, on narrow 
strips or coves, of rich flats. On the Coosau, sixty miles 
above its junction with Tallapoosa, there is limestone, and 
it is to be found in several places from thence up to Etow- 
woh, and its western branches. 

* G is always hard in Greek. Mus-co-gee, a Creek Indian ; Mus-co-gul-gt-e, the 
Creeks. Ghe-io-kee, a Cherokee. Ghe-loc-ul-gee, the Cherokees. 

20, A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

The country above the falls of Oc-mul-gee and Flint 
rivers, is less broken than that of the other rivers. These 
have their sources near each other, on the left side of 
Chattohoche, in open, flat, land, the soil stiff, the trees 
post and black oak, all small. The land is generally rich, 
well watered, and lies well, as a waving country, for culti- 
vation. The growth of timber is oak, hickory, and the 
short leaf pine ; pea-vine on the hill sides and in the bot- 
toms, and a tall, broad leaf, rich grass, on the richest land. 
The whole is a very desirable country. Below the falls 
of these two rivers, the land is broken or waving. The 
streams are, some of them, margined with oak woods ; 
and all of them with cane or reed. The upland of Oc- 
mul-gee is pine forest ; the swamp wide and rich ; the 
whole is fine for stock. On its right bank, below the 
old Uchee path, there is some light pine barren, with 
saw palmetto and wiregr.'iss.' 

Flint river, below its falls, has some rich swamp, for 
not more than twenty miles. Its left bank is then poor, 
with pine flats and ponds, down within fifteen miles of its 
confluence with Chat-to-ho-che. These fifteen miles is 
waving, with some good oak in small veins. On its right 
bank there are several large creeks, which rise out of the 
ridge dividing the waters of Fhnt and Chattohoche. Some 
of them are margined with oak woods and cane ; and all 
the branches, for seventy miles below the falls, have reed ; 
from thence down there are bay galls and dwarf ever- 
greens, and cypress ponds, with some live oak. Between 
these rivers, there is some good post and black oak land, 
strewed over with iron ore, and the ridge dividing their 
waters has a vein of it, extending itself in the direction 
with the ridge. Within twenty-five miles of the conflu- 
ence of the rivers, the live oak is to be seen near all the 
ponds, and here are limestone rocks. The land here is 
good in veins, in the flats and on the margins of the rivers. 
The trees of every description are small. The range is 
a fine one for cattle. 

That exclusive body of land between Flint river, O-ke- 
fi-no-cau, A-la-ta-ma-ha and the eastern boundary of the 
creek claims, is poor pine land, with cypress ponds and 
bay galls. The small streams are margined with dwarf 
evergreens. The uplands have yellow pine, with dwarf 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 21 

saw palmetto and wiregrass. The bluffs on St. Illas, are, 
some part of them, sandy pine barren ; the remainder is 
a compact, stiff, yellowish sand or clay, with large swamps ; 
the growth is the loblolly bay, gum and small evergreens. 
The whole of these swamps is bogs. In the rainy sea- 
son, which commences after midsummer, the ponds fill, 
and then the country is, a great part of it, covered with 
water ; and in the dry season it is difficult to obtain water 
in any direction, for many miles. 

Bees abound in the 0-ke-fin-a-cau and other swamps, 
eastward of Flint river. The wortleberry is to be found 
in the swamps, and on the poorest of the land bordering 
on the cypress ponds. When the woods are not burnt 
for a year or more, the latter are on dwarf bushes, grow 
larger, and in great abundance. 

The dwarf saw palmetto, when the woods are not burnt, 
in like manner bears a cluster of berries on a single stem, 
which are eaten by bear, deer, turkeys and Indians. The 
berries are half an inch in diameter, covered with a black 
skin, and have a hard seed ; they are agreeable to the 
taste, sweet, accompanied with bitter, and when full ripe 
they burst, and the bees extract much honey from them. 
The China briar is in the flat, rich, sandy margins of 
streams. The Indians dig the roots, pound them in a 
mortar, and suspend them in coarse cloth, pour water on 
them and wash them. The sediment which passes through 
with the water is left to subside ; the water is then poured 
off, and the sediment is baked into cakes or made into 
gruel sweetened with honey. This briar is called Coonte, 
and the bread made of it, Coon-te-tuc-a-li-sa, and is an 
important article of food among the hunters. In the old 
beaver ponds, in thick boggy places, they have the bog 
potatoe (Uc-lau-wau-he-aha) a small root, used as food in 
years of scarcity. 

The 0-ke-fin-o-cau is the source of the St. Mary's and 
Little St. Johns, called by the Indians Sau-wau-na. It is 
sometimes called E-cun-fin-o-cau, from E-cun-nau, earth ; 
and Fin-o-cau, quivering. The first is the most common 
amongst the Creeks. It is from Ooka a Chactau word 
for water, and Fin-o-cau, quivering. This is a very ex- 
tensive swamp, and much of it a bog ; and so much so, 

22 A Skelch of the Creek Country* 

that a little motion will make the mud and water quiver to 
a great distance. Hence tlie name is given. 

Ho-ith-Jepoie Tus-tun-nug-ge-thluc-co, an Indian who 
resided in it many years, says that, " the Little St. John's 
may be ascended far into the swamp, and that it is not 
practicable to go far up the St. Mary's, as it loses itself 
in the swamp ; that there is one ridge on the west side of 
the St. John's, and three on the east. The growth is pine, 
live and white oak ; the soil good ; the lakes abound in 
fish and alli;2;ators. On the ridges and in the swamps 
there were a great many bear, deer, and tigers. He lived 
on the ridge west of the St. John's, and was, with his fam- 
ily, very healthy. Being unwillin;^ to take part in the war 
between the United States and Great Britain, he moved 
there to be out of the way of it, was well pleased with 
his situation, and should have continued to reside there, 
but for the beasts of prey, which destroyed his cattle and 
horses. He could walk round the swamp in five days." 

The land between Chat-to-ho-che and Alabama, border- 
ing on the southern boundary of the United States, is bet- 
ter than that on the east side of Flint river. The Ko-e- 
ne-cuh rises between these two rivers, and makes the bay 
Escambia at Pensacola. Between Ko-e-ne-cuh and 
Chat-to-ho-che, the land is broken or waving. The ridge 
dividing their waters, has high flats of light land, well set 
with willow-leaved hickory, and iron ore in places, and 
all the streams have reed or cane on their margins. 

This country has the appearance of being a healthy 
one, and the range is fine for cattle, hogs, and horses. 
The pine flats have the wiregrass, and in some places, 
the saw palmetto. The soil of the waving land is, some 
of it, stiff and red, with stones on the ridges. The pine 
land is stiff, generally, and pretty good for corn. 

The Tal-la-poo-sa from its falls to its confluence with 
the Coosau, about thirty miles, has some good flat land. 
The broken land terminates on its right bank, and the 
good land spreads out on its left. There are several pine 
creeks on this side, which have their source in the ridge 
dividing these waters from Ko-e-ne-cuh. The land bor- 
dering on them is rich ; the timber large, and cane abund- 
ant. This good land extends to the Alabama, and down 
it for thirty miles, includmg the plains, (He-guc-pul-gee.) 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 23 

These are seventeen miles through, going parallel to Ala- 
bama south 20° west. They are waving, hill and dale, 
and appear divided into fields. In the fields the grass is 
short, no brush ; the soil in places is a lead color, yellow 
underneath, within the abode of the ants, and very stiff. 
In the wooded parts the growth is generally post oak, and 
very large, without any under brush, beautifully set in 
clumps. Here the soil is a dark clay, covered with long 
grass and weeds, which indicate a rich soil. One observ- 
ation applies to all the fields; in the centre the land is 
poorest, the grass shortest, and it rises gradually to the 
wooded margins, where it is tall, and the land apparently 
rich. Four large creeks meander through the plains to 
the Alabama. They all have broad margins of stiff, level, 
rich land, well wooded and abounding with cane. There 
is, notwithstanding these creeks, a scarcity of water in 
the dry season, and all the creeks were dry in 1799, and 
not a spring of water was to be found. 

The Alabama is margined with cane swamps, and these, 
in places, with flats of good land or poor pine flats. The 
swamps at the confluence with the Tombigby and below 
on the iMobile, is low and subject to be overflowed every 
spring. Above, it is of great width, intersected with 
lakes, slashes, and crooked drains, and much infested 
with musketoes. The people who cultivate this swamp, 
never attempt to fence it, as the annual freshes, always 
in the spring, rise from three to ten feet over it. The 
land, borderincr on the swamp, and for a mile back, is a 
poor, stiff clay ; the growth is pine and underbrush, back 
of this broken pine barren, there are cypress ponds, and 
veins of reeds in the branches. The range is said to be 
a fine one for cattle. The settlement of Ta-cn-sau bor- 
ders on the Mobile and Alabama, on the left side. On 
the same side of Alabama, fifty miles above its confluence 
with the Tombigby, the high broken lands commence and 
extend for sixty or seventy miles upwards, and abound in 
places with large, fine, tall cedar. 

The land between Alabama and Ko-o-ne-cuh, below 
the plains, is broken or waveing; the soil is stiff, very 
red in places, and gravelly ; for thirty miles then succeeds 
stiff pine barren. Limestone, a creek which enters the 
Alabama, has some good broken land, with limestone, 

24 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

which gives name to the creek. At its sources there is a 
fine body of land called the " dooj woods," the growth is 
oak, chesnut, poplar, lind and dogwood. This vein of 
land is nearly twenty miles in length, and eight wide* 
The dogwood is very thick set, and some of them large, 
ten inches diameter. The whole is finely watered. 

The Coosau has its source high up in the Cherokee 
country. E-tow-woh and Oos-te-nau-lih, are its main 
branches. The land on these rivers is rich, and abounds 
with limestone. Sixty miles above the confluence of the 
Coo-sau with Tallapoosa, there is a high, waving, hme- 
stone country settled by the Indians of Coo-sau, Au-be- 
coo-che nau-che and Eu-fau-lau-hat-che. The settlements 
are generally on rich flats of oaks, hickory, poplar, wal- 
nut and mulberry. The springs are fine ; there is cane 
on the creeks, and reed on the branches. The surround- 
ing country is broken and gravelly. The land fit for cul- 
ture, is generally the margins of the creeks, or the waving 
slopes from the high broken land. 

Throughout the whole of this country, there is but 
little fruit of any kind ; in some of the rich flats there 
are fox grapes and muscadines ; the small cluster grapes 
of the hills is destroyed by fire, and the persimmon, haw 
and chesnut, by the hatchet ; there are a few blackberries 
in the old fields, red haws on the poor sand hills, and 
strawberries thinly scattered, but not a gooseberry, rasp- 
berry or currant, in the land. 

The traveller, in j)assing through a country as extensive 
and wild as this, and so much in a state of nature, ex- 
pects to see game in abundance. The whole of the creek 
claims, the Seminoles inclusive, cover three hundred miles 
square; and it is difficult for a good hunter, in passing 
through it, in any direction, to obtain enough for his sup- 

The towns, with a description of their position, and the lands 
of their neighborhood. 

There are thirty-seven towns in the Creek nation ; 
twelve on the waters of Chat-to-ho-che, and twenty-five 
on the waters of Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sa. The small 
towns or villages belong to some one of these. The old 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 25 

towns have the exclusive right of governing the ceremony 
of the Boos-ke-tuh.* 

The towns on Chat-to-ho-che. 

1 Cow-e-tuh. 7 Hitch-e-tee. 

2 Cow-c-tuh-tal-lau-has-see. 8 Pa-la-chooc-la. 

3 Cus-se-tuh. 9 O-co-nee. 

4 U-chee. 10 Sau-woog-e-lo. 

5 Oo-se-oo-che. 11 Sau-woog-e-loo-che. 

6 Che-au-hau. 12 Eu-fau-lau. 

The towns on Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sa. 

1 Tal-e-see. 

14 O-che-au-po-fau. 

2 Took-au-bat-che. 

15 We-wo-cau. 

3 Aut-tos-see. 

1 6 Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see, 

4 Hoith-le Waulee. 

17 Coo-sau. 

5 Foosce-hat-che. 

18 Au-be-coo-chee 

6 Coo-loome. 

19 Nau-chee. 

7 E-cun-hut-kee. 

20 Eu-fau-lau-hat-che. 

8 Sau-va-no-gee. 

21 Woc-co-coie. 

9 Mook-lau-sau. 

22 Hill-au-bee. 

10 Coo-sau-dee. 

23 Oc-fus-kee. 

11 Hook-choie. 

24 Eu-fau-lau. 

12 Hook-choie-oo-che. 

25 Ki-a-li-jee. 

13 Tus-ke-gee. 

The towns of the Simenolies deserve a place here, as 
they are Creeks. The}'' inhabit the country bordering on 
the gulf of Mexico, from A-pa-la-che-co-la, including 
Little St. John's and the Florida point. They have seven 

1 Sim-e-no-le-tal-lau-haf-see 5 Oc-le-wau-hau thluc-co. 

2 Mic-co sooc-e. 6 Tal-lau-gue chapco pop-cau 

3 We-cho-took-me. 7 Cull-oo-sau hat-che. 

4 Au-lot-che-wau. 

Sim-e-lo-le or Sim-e-no-le, means wild. These towns 

* Hereafter described. 

26 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

are made from tlie towns 0-co-nee, Sau-woog-e-lo, Eu- 
fau-lau, Tuin-rnault-lau, I'a-lri-chooc-le arid Hitch-e-tee. 
Tliey are called vild people, because they left their old 
towns and made irregular settlements in this country to 
which they were invited by the plenty of game, the mild- 
ness of the climate, the richness of the soil, and the 
abundance of food for cattle and horses. The range is 
equally fine for hogs, but they are raised with difficulty, 
as the ponds and swamps abound with alligators. 

A description of the towns on Coosaii and Tal-la-poo-sa, gen- 
erallij called Upper Creeks. 

I. Tal-e-scc^ from Tal-o-fau, a town, and e-see, taken. 
Situated in the fork ot Eu fau-le on the left bank of Tal- 
ja-poo-sa, opposite Took-au-l'at-che. Eu-fau-be has its 
source in the ri ge dividing the waters of Chat-to-ho-che, 
from Tal-la-poo-sn, and runs nearly west to the junction 
with the rrer; there it is sixty feet wide. The land on it is 
poor for some miles up, then rich flats, bordered with pine 
Ian': with reedy l)ranches, a fine range for cattle and horses. 

The Indians have mostly Kft the town, and settled up 
the creek, or on its waters, for twenty miles. The settle- 
ments are some of them well chosen, and fenced with 
worm fences. The land bordering on the streams of the 
right side of the creek, is better than that of the left; and 
here the settlements are mostly made. Twelve miles up 
the (reek from its mouth it forks ; the large fork of the 
left side has some rich flat swamp, large white oak, pop- 
lar, ash and white pine. 'Ihe trading path from Cus-se- 
tuh to the Upper Creeks crosses this li;rk twice. Here 
it is called big swamp, (opil-lhluc-co.) The waving land 
to its source is stiff". The growth is post oak, pine and 
hard shelled hickory. 

The Indian- who have settled out on the margins and 
branches of the creek, have, several of them, cattle, hogs 
and horses, and begin to be attentive to them. The head 
warrior of the town, Teter iVIcQueen, a half breed, is a 
snug trader, has a valuable property in negroes and stock 
and beiJins to know their value. 

These Indians were very friendly to the United States, 
during the revolutionary war, and their old chief, Ho-bo- 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 27 

ith-le Mic-co, of the halfway house, (improperly called 
the Tal-e-see king,) could not be prevailed on by any of- 
fers from the agents of Great Britain, to ta'e part with 
them. On the return of peace, and the establishment of 
friendly arrangements between the Indians and citizens of 
the United iStates, this chief felt himself neo-lectrd bv 
Mr. Seagrove, which resenting, he robbed and insulted 
that gentleman, compelled him to leave his house near 
Took-au-bat-che, ami fly into a swamp. He has since 
then, as from a spirit of contradiction, formed a party in 
opposition to the will of the nation, which has given 
much trouble and difficulty to the chiefs of the land. His 
principal assistants were the leaders of the banditti who 
insulted the commissioners of Spain and ihe United States, 
on the 17th September, 1799, at the confluence of Flint 
and Chat-to-ho-che. 'I he exemplary punishment inflicted 
on them by the warriors of the nation, has effectually 
checked their mischief-making and silenced them. And 
this chief has had a solerrm warning from the national 
council, to respect the laws of the nation, or he should 
meet the punishment ordained by the law. He is one of 
the great medal chiefs. 

This spirit of party or opposition, prevails not only 
here, but more or less in every town in the nation. I'he 
plainest proposition for ameliorating their condition, is 
immediately opposed ; and this opposition continues as 
long as there is hope to obtain presents, the infallible mode 
heretofore in use, to gain a point. 

2. Took-au-bat-che. The ancient name of this town 
is Is-po-co-gee ; its derivation uncertain ; it is situated 
on the right bank of the Tallapoosa, opposite the junc- 
tion of Mu-fau-be, two and a half miles below the falls of 
the river, on a beautiful level. The course of the river 
from the falls to the town, is south ; it then turns east 
three-quarters of a mile, and short round a point opposite 
Eu-fau-be, thence west and west-by-north to its conflu- 
ence with Coosau, about thirty miles. It is one hundred 
yards wide opposite the town house to the south, and 
here are two good fords during the summer. One just 
below the point of a small island, the other one hundred 
yards still lower. 

The water of the falls, after tumbling over a bed of 

28 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

rock for half a mile, is forced into two channels ; one 
thirty, the other fifteen feet wide. The fall is forty feet in 
fifty yards. The channel on the right side, which is the 
widest, falls nearly twenty feet in ten feet. The fish are 
obstructed here in their attempts to ascend the river. 
From appearances, they might be easily taken in the sea- 
son of their ascending the rivers, but no attempts have 
hitherto been made to do so. 

The rock is a light gray, very much divided in square 
blocks of various sizes for building. It requires very 
little labor to reduce it to form, for plain walls. Large 
masses of it are so nicely fitted, and so regular, as to im- 
itate the wall of an ancient building, where the stone had 
passed through the hands of a mason. The quantity of 
this description at the falls and in the hill sides adjoining 
them, is great ; sufficient for the building of a large city. 

The falls above spread out, and the river widens to half 
a mile within that distance, and continues that width for 
four miles. Within this scope are four islands, which 
were formerly cultivated, but are now old fields margined 
with cane. The bed of the river is here rocky, shoally, 
and covered with moss. It is frequented in summer by 
cattle, horses, and deer ; and in the winter, by swans, 
geese and ducks. 

On the right bank opposite the falls, the land is broken, 
stoney and gravelly. The hill sides fronting the river, 
exhibit this building rock. The timber is post oak, hick- 
ory and pine, all small. From the hills the land spreads 
off level. The narrow flat margin between the hills and 
the river is convenient for a canal for mills on an ex- 
tensive scale, and to supply a large extent of flat land 
around the town with water. Below the falls a small 
distance, there is a spring and branch, and within five 
hundred yards a small creek ; thence within half a mile, 
the land becomes level and spreads out on this side two 
miles, including the flats of Wol-lau-hat-che, a creek ten 
feet wide, which rises seventeen miles from its junction 
with the river, in the high pine forest, and running south- 
south-east enters the river three miles below the town 
house. The whole of this flat, between the creek and 
the river, bordering on the town, is covered with oak and 
the small hard shelled hickory. The trees are all small ; 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 29 

the land is light, and fine for corn, cotton or melons. The 
creek has a little cane on its margins, and reed on the 
small branches ; but the range is much exhausted by the 
stock of the town. 

On the left bank of the river, at the falls, the land is 
broken pine forest. Half a mile below there is a small 
creek which has its source seven miles from the river, its 
margins covered with reed or cane. Below the creek the 
land becomes flat, and continues so to Tale^ee on the Eu- 
fau-bee, and half a mile still lower, to the hills between 
this creek and Ca-le-bc-hat-che. The hills extend nearly 
two miles, are intersected by one small creek and two 
branches, and terminate on the river in two high bluffs ; 
from whence is an extensive view of the town, the river, 
the flat lands on the opposite shore and the range of hills 
to the northwest ; near one of the bluffs there is a fine 
spring, and near it a beautiful elevated situation for a set- 
tlement. The hills are bounded to the west by a small 
branch. Below this, the flat land spreads out for one 
mile. It is a quarter of a mile from the branch on this 
flat to the residence of Mr. Cornells, (Oche Haujo,) thence 
half a mile to the public establishment, thence two miles 
to the mouth of Ca-le-be-hat che. This creek has its 
source thirty miles to the east in waving, post oak, hick- 
ory and pine land ; in some places the swamp is wide, 
the beach and white oak very large, with poplar, cy- 
press, red bay, sassafras, Florida magnolia, and white 
pine. Broken piny woods and reedy branches on its 
right side ; oak flats, red and post oak, willow leaved 
hickory, long and short leaf pine and reedy branches on 
its left side. The creek at its mouth is twenty-five feet 
wide. The flat between it and the river is fine for corn, 
cotton and melons, oak, hickory, and short leaf pine. 
From this flat to its source, it is margined with cane, reed, 
and palmetto. Ten miles up the creek, between it and 
Kebihatche, the next creek below and parallel with this, 
are some licks in post and red oak saplin flats ; the range 
on these creeks is apparently fine for cattle ; yet from the 
want of salt or moss, the large ones appear poor in the 
fall, while other cattle, where moss is to be had, or they 
are regularly salted, are fat. 

They have 116 gun men belonging to this town ; they 

30 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

were formerly more numerous, but have been unfortunate 
in their wars. In the last they had with the Chickasaws, 
they lost thirty- five gun men ; they have begun to settle 
out in villages for the conveniency of stock raising, and 
having firewood ; the stock which frequent the mossy 
shoals above the town, look well and appear healthy ; the 
Indians begin to be attentive to them, and are increasing 
them by all the means in their power. Several of them 
have from fifty to one hundred, and the town fiirniMied 
seventy good beef cattle in 1799. One chief, Toolk-au- 
bat-che Haujo, has five hundred, and although apparently 
very indigent, he never sells any ; while he seems to deny 
himself the comforts of life, he gives continued proofs of 
unbounded hospitality ; he seldom kills less than two large 
beeves a fortnight, for his friends and acquaintances. 

The town is on the decline. Its appearance proves the 
inattention of the inhahitants. It is badly fencrd ; they 
have but a few plum trees, and several clumps of cassine 
yupon ; the land is much exhausted with continued cul- 
ture, and the wood for fuel is at a great and inconvenient 
distance, unless boats or land carriages were in use ; it 
could then be easily supplied ; the river is navigable for 
boats drawing two and a half feet in the dry season, from 
just above the town, to Alabama. From the point just 
above the town to the tails, the river spreads over a bed 
of flat rock in several places, where the depth of water 
is something less than two feet. 

This is the residence of Efau Haujo, one of the great 
medal chiefs, the speaker for the nation at the national 
council. He is one of the best informed men of the land, 
and faithful to his national engagements. He has five 
black slaves, and a stock of cattle and horses ; liut they 
are of little use to him ; the ancient habits instilled in 
him by French and British agents, that the red chiefs are 
to live on presents from their white friends, is so riveted, 
that he claims it as a tribute due to him, and one that 
never must be dispensed with. 

At the public establishment there is a smith's shop, a 
dwelling house and kitchen built of logs, and a field well 
fenced. And it is in the contemplation of the agent, to 
have a public garden and nursery. 

The assistant and interpreter, Mr. Cornells, (Oche 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 31 

Haujo,) one of the chiefs of the Creek nation, has a farm 
well fenced and cultivated with the plough. He is a half 
breed, of a strong mind, and fulfils the duties enjoined on 
him by his appointment, with zeal and fidelity. He has 
nine negroes un ler good government. Some of his family 
have good farms, and one of them, Zachariah McGive is 
a careful, snug farmer, has good fences, a fine young 
orchard, and a stock of hogs, liorses and cattle. His wife 
has the neatness and economy of a white woman. This 
family and Sullivan's, in the neighborhood, are spinning.* 

3, Aut-tos-se, en the left side of Tallapoosa, below 
and adjoining Ca-le-be-hat-che. A poor, miserat>le look- 
ing place, fenced with small poles ; the first on forks in a 
fine and two others on slakes hardly sufficient to keep out 
cattle. They have some plum and peach trees ; a swamp 
back of the town and some good land back of that, a fiat 
of oak, hickory and pine. On the right bank of the river, 
just below the town, they have a fine rich cove of land 
which was formerly a cane brake, and has been cultivated. 

There is, below the town, one good fiirm made by the 
late Richard Bailey, and an orchard of peach trees Mrs. 
Bailey, the widow, is neat, clean and industrious, and 
very attentive to the interests of her family ; qualities 
rarely to be met with in an Indian woman. Her example 
has no efl[ect on the Indians, even her own family, with 
the exception of her own children. She has fifty bee-hives 
and a great supply of honey every year ; has a fine stock 
of hogs, cattle and horses, and they all do well. Her 
son, Richard Bailey, was educated in Philadelphia by the 
Government, and he has brought with him into the nation 
so much contempt for the Indian mode of life, that he 
has got himself into discredit with them. His young 
brother is under the direction of the Quakers in Philadel- 
phia. His three sisters promise to do well, they are in- 
dustrious and can spin. Some of the Indians have cattle ; 
but in general, they are destitute of property. 

* January 1st, 1801. Mr. Cornells has a flock of sheep presented to him by the 
agent, of which he is very careful. His farm is in fine order, the fences well made and 
straight, his garden 150 feet square, well paled, laid off and planted with the variety 
usual in good gardens. He has a nursery of peach trees, and two bushels of peach 
stones to plant, by order of the agent, for a public nursery. He is very attentive to all 
imprcvenients suggested to him, and has now pepared a field of two acres for cotioii. 
He ha? a field of rye which looks well, and is about to sow a field of oats. He retains 
his Indian dress, but has the manners of a well bred man. 

32 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

' In the year 1766 there were forty-three gun men, and 
lately they were estimated at eighty. This is a much 
greater increase of population than is to be met with in 
other towns ! they appear to be stationary generally, and 
in some towns are on the decrease ; the apparent differ- 
ence here, or increase, may be greater than the real ; as 
formerly men grown were rated as gun men, and now 
boys of fifteen, who are hunters, are rated as gun men ; 
they have for two years past been on the decline ; arc 
very sickly, and have lost many of their inhabitants ; 
they are now rated at fifty gun men only.* 

4. Ho-ith-le Waule, from Ho-ith-le, war, and wau-le, to 
share out or divide. This town had, formerly, the right to 
declare war ; the declaration was sent first to Took-au- 
bat-che, and thence throughout the nation, and they ap- 
pointed the rendezvous of the warriors. It is on the right 
bank of the Tallapoosa, five miles below Aut-tos-see. In 
descending the river on the left side from Aut-tos-see, is 
two miles across Ke-bi-hat-che ; thence one mile and a 
half O-fuck-she, and enter the fields of the town ; the 
fields extend down the river for one and a half miles ; the 
town is on the right bank, on a narrow strip of good land ; 
and back of it, under high red cliffs, are cypress ponds. 
It borders west on Autoshatche twenty-five feet wide. 

These peeple have some cattle, and a few hogs and 
horses ; they have some settlements up O-fuck-she ; the 
increase of property among them, and the inconvenience 
attendant on their situation, their settlement being on the 
right side of the river, and their fields and stock on the 
left, brought the well-disposed to listen with attention to 
the plan of civilization, and to comment freely on their 
bad management. The town divided against itself; the 
idlers and the ill-disposed remained in the town, and the 
others moved over the river and fenced their fields. On 
this side the land is good and level, and the range out from 
the river good to the sources of 0-fuc-she. On the other 
side, the hi<ih broken land comes close to the river. It 
is broken pine barren, back of that.. The situation of the 

* January 1st, 1801. Richard Bailey being dead, much of the Indian appears. The 
fifty bee-hives are reduced to one, and his son Richard is neither an Indian nor white 
man ; yet he promises to mend, as the agent for Indian affairs is soon to reside in his 
neighborhood. The date to the calculation of numbers, is here noted from a British 
return, but it is probably erroneous. 

A Sketch of the Creek -Country. 33t 

town is low and unhealthy ; and this remark applies to all 
the towns on Tallapoosa, below the falls. 

O-fuc-she has its source near Ko-e-ne-cuh, thirty miles 
from the river, and runs north. It has eight or nine forks, 
and the land is good on all of them. The growth is oak, 
hickory, poplar, cherry, persimon, with cane brakes on 
the flats and hills. It is a delightful range for stock, and 
was preserved by the Indians for bears, and called the 
beloved bear-ground. Every town had a reserve of this 
sort exclusively ; but as the cattle increase and the bears 
decrease, they are hunted in common. This creek is 
sixty feet wide, has steep banks, and is difficult to cross, 
when the waters are high. 

Kebihatche has its source to the east, and is parallel 
with Ca-le-be-hat-che ; the margins of the creek have 
rich flats bordering pine forest or post oak hills. 

5. Foosce-hat-che ; from foo-so-wau, a bird, and hat-che, 
tail. It is two miles below Ko-ith-le-wau-le, on the right 
bank of Tal-la-poo-sa, on a narrow strip of flat land ; the 
broken lands are just back of the town ; the cornfields 
are on the opposite side of the river, and are divided from 
those of Ho-ith-le-wau-le by a small creek, Noo-coose- 
chepo. On the right bank of this little creek, half a mile 
from the river, is the remains of a ditch, which sur- 
rounded a fortification, and back of this for a mile, is the 
appearance of old settlements, and back of these, pine 

The cornfields are narrow, and extend down, bordering 
on the river. 

6. Coo-loo-me, is below and near to Foosce-hat-che, 
on the right side of the river ; the town is small and com- 
pact, on a flat much too low, and subject to be overflowed 
in the seasons of floods, which is once in fifteen or six- 
teen years, always in the winter season, and mostly in 
March ; they have, within two years, begun to settle back, 
next to the broken lands ; the cornfields are on the oppo- 
site side, joining those of Foosce-hat-che, and extend to- 
gether near four miles down the river, from one hundred 
to two hundred yards wide. Back of these hills there is 
a rich swamp of from four to six hundred yards wide, 
which, when reclaimed, must be valuable for corn or rice, 


34 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

and could be easily drained into the river, which seldom 
overflows its banks, in spring or summer. 

They have no fences ; they have huts in the fields to 
shelter the laborers in the summer season from rain, and 
for the guards set to watch the crops while they are 
growing. At this season some families move over and 
reside in their Helds, and return with their crops into the 
town. There are two paths, one through the fields en 
the river l)an!<, and the other back of the swamp. In the 
season for melons, the Indians of this town and Foosce- 
hat-che show in a particular manner their hospitality to 
all travellers, by callmg to t'r.em, introducing them to their 
huts or the shade of their trees, and giving them excellent 
melons, and the best fare they possess. Opposite the 
town house, in the fields, is a conical mound of earth 
thirty feet in diameter, ten feet high, with large peach 
trees on several places. At the lower end of the rields, 
on the left bank of a fine little creek, Le-cau-suh, is a 
pretty little village of Coo-loo-me people, finely situated 
on a rismg ground; the land up this creek is waving pine 

7. E'Cua-hut-ke ; from e-cun-nau, earth, and hut-ke, 
white, called by the traders while ground. This little 
town is just below Coo-loo-me, on the i-ame side of the 
river, and five or six miles above ISam-beMoh, a large fine 
creek which has its source in the pine hills to the north, 
and its whole course through broken pine hills. It ap- 
pears to be a nover-failing stream, and fine for mills ; the 
fields belonging to this town, are on both sides of the 

8. Sau-wa-no-gee, is on a pine forest, three miles below 
Le-cau-suh, and back from a swamp bordering on the 
river ; their fields are on both sides of the river, but 
mostly on the left bank, between the swamp and the river, 
on a vein of rich canebrake land ; they are the Shaw-a- 
nee, and retain the language and customs of their coun- 
trymen to the northwest, and aided them in their late war 
with the United Staters. Some Uchees have settled with 
them ; they arc industrious, work with their women and 
make plenty of corn ; they have no cattle, anil but few 
horses and hogs ; the town house is an oblong square 

A Sketch of tlie Creek Country. ^ 

cabin, roof eight feet pitch, the sides and roof covered 
with the bark of the pine ; on the left side of the river. 

9. Mook-lau-sau, is a small town one mile below Sau- 
va-noo-<i;ee, on the left bank of a fine little creek, and 
bordering on a cypress swamp ; their fields are below 
those of Sau-van-no-gee, bordering on the river ; they 
have some lots about their houses fenced for potatoes ; 
one chief has some cattle, horses and hogs ; a few others 
have some cattle and hogs. 

In the season of floods, the river spreads out on this 
side below the town, nearly eight miles from bank to 
bank, and is very destructive to game and stock. 

. 10. Coo-sau-dee, is a compact little town situated three 
miles below the confluence of Coosau and Tallapoosa, on 
the right bank of Alabama ; they have fields on both 
sides of the river ; but their chief dependence is a high, 
rich island, at the mouth of Coosau. They have some 
fences, good against cattie only, and some families have 
small patches fenced, near the town, for potatoes. 

These Indians are not Creeks, although they conform 
to their ceremonies ; the men work with the women and 
make great plenty of corn ; all labor is done by the joint 
labor of all, called public work, except gathering in the 
crop. During the seasen for labor, none are exempted 
from their share of it, or suffered to go out hunting. 

There is a rich flat of land nearly five miles in width, 
opposite the town, on the left side of the river, on which 
are numbers of conic mounds of earth. Back of the 
town it is pine barren, and continues so westward for 
sixty to one hundred miles. 

The Coo-sau-dee generally go to market by water, and 
some of them are good oarsmen. A part of this town 
moved lately beyond the Mississippi, and have settled 
there. The description sent back by them that the 
country is rich and healthy, and abounds in game, is liiscly 
to draw others after them. But as they have all tasted 
the sweets of civil life, in having a convenient market for 
their products, it is likely they will soon return to their 
old settlements, which J^re in a very desirable country, 
well suited to the raising of cattle, hogs and horses; they 
have a few hogs, and seventy or eighty cattle, and some 
horses. It is not more than three years since they had 

^ A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

not a hog among them. Robert Walton, who was then 
the trader for the town, gave the women some pigs, and 
this is the origin of their stock. 

There are four villages below this town on A-la-ba-ma, 
which had formerly a regular town ; they are probably the 
ancient A-la-ba-mas. 

1st. E-cun-chate ; from E-cnn-na, ear^A, and chate, re<?. 
A small village on the left bank of Alabama, which has 
its fields on the right side, in the cane swamp ; they are 
a poor people, without stock, are idle and indolent, and 
seldom make bread enough, but have fine melons in great 
abundance in their season. The land back from the set- 
tlement, is of thin quality, oak, hickory, pine and ponds. 
Back of this, hills, or waving. Here the soil is of good 
quality for cultivation ; that of thin quality extends nearly 
a mile. 

2d. Too-wos-sau, is three miles below E-cun-cha-te, 
on the same side of the river, a small village on a high 
bluff; the land is good about, and back of the village ; 
they have some lots fenced with cane, and some with 
rails, for potatoes and ground nuts ; the corn is cultivated 
on the right side of the river, on rich cane swamps ; these 
people have a few hogs, but no other stock. 

3rd. Pmi-woc-te ; a small village two miles below Too- 
was-sau, on a high bluff, the same side of the river ; the 
land is level and rich, for five miles back ; but none of it 
is cultivated around their houses ; their fields are on the 
right bank of the river, on rich cane swamp ; they have 
a few hogs and horses, but no cattle ; they had, formerly, 
the largest and best breed of hogs in the nation, but have 
lost them by carelessness or inattention. 

4th. At-tau-gee ; a small village four miles below Pau- 
woc-te, spread out for two miles on the right bank of the 
river ; they have fields on both sides, but their chief de- 
pendence is on the left side ; the land on the left side is 
rich ; on the right side the pine forest extends down to 
At-tau-gee creek ; below this creek the land is rich. 

These people have very little intercourse with white 
people ; although they are hospitable, and offer freely any 
thing they have, to those who visit them. They have 
this singular custom, as soon as a white person has 
eaten of any dish and left it, the remains are thrown 

A Sketch of the Creek Country, 37 

away, and every thing used by the guest immediately 

They have some hogs, horses and cattle, in a very fine 
range, perhaps the best on the river ; the land to the east 
as far as Ko-e-ne-cuh, and except the plains, (Hi-yuc-pul- 
gee,) is well watered, with much canebrake, a very desi- 
rable country. On the west or right side, the good land 
extends about five miles, and on all the creeks below At- 
tau-gee, it is good ; some of the trees are large poplar, 
red oak and hickory, walnut on the margins of the creeks, 
and pea-vine in the valleys. 

These four villages have, in all, about eighty gun men ; 
they do not conform to the customs of the Creeks, and 
the Creek law for the punishment of adultery is not known 
to them. 

11. Hook-choie ; on a creek of that name which joins 
on the left side of Ki-a-li-jce, three miles below the town, 
and seven miles south of ihlo-tlo-gul-gau. The settle- 
ments extend along the creeks; on the margins of which 
and the hill sides, are good oak and hickory, with coarse 
gravel, all surrounded with pine forest. 

12. Hook-choie-oo-che ; a pretty little compact town, 
between 0-che-au-po-fau and Tus-ke-gee, on the left bank 
of Coosau ; the houses join those of Tus-ke-gee ; the 
land around the town is a high, poor level, with highland 
ponds ; the corn fields are on the left side of Tallapoosa, 
on rich low grounds, on a point called Sam-bel-loh, and 
below the mouth of the creek of that name which joins 
on the right side of the river. 

They have a good stock of hogs, and a few cattle and 
horses ; they formerly lived on the right bank of Coosau, 
just above their present site, and rapioved, lately, on ac- 
count of the war with the Chickasaws. Their stock 
ranges on that side of the river ; they have fenced all the 
small fields about their houses, where they raise their 
peas and potatoes ; their fields at Sam-bel-loh, are under 
a good fence ; this was made by Mrs. Durant, the oldest 
sister of the late General McGiUivray, for her own con- 

13. Tus-ke-gee ; this little town is in the fork of the 
two rivers, Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sa, where formerly 
stood the French fort Toulouse. The town is on a bluff 

38 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

on the Coo-sau, forty-six feet above low watermark; the 
rivers here approach each other within a quarter of a 
mile, then curve out, making a flat of low land of three 
thousand acres, which has been rich canebrake ; and one- 
third under cultivation, in times past'; the centre of this 
flat is rich oak and hickory, margined on both sides with 
rich cane swamp ; the land back of the town, for a mile, 
is flat, a vvhilish clay ; small pine, oak and dwarf hickory, 
then high pine forest. 

There are thirty buildings in the town, compactly situ- 
ated, and from the bluft' a fine view of the flat lands in 
the fork, and on the right bank of Coosau, which liver is 
here two hundred yards wide. In the yard of the town 
house, there are five cannon of iron, with the trunions 
broke off", and on the bluft' some brickbats, the only re- 
mains of the French establishment here. There is one 
apple tree claimed by this town, now in possession of one 
of the chiefs of Book-choie-oo-che. 

The fields are the left side of Tal-la-poo-sa, and there 
are some small patches well formed in the fork of the 
rivers, on the flat rich land below the bluflf. 

The Coosau extending itself a great way into the Cher- 
okee country and mountains, gives scope for a vast accu- 
mulation of waters, at times. The Indians remark that 
once in fifteen or sixteen years, they have a flood, which 
overflows the banks, and spreads itself for five miles or 
more in width, in many parts of A-la-ba-ma. The rise 
is sudden, and so rapid as to drive a current up the Tal- 
la-poo-sa for eight miles. In January, 1796, the flood 
rose forty-seven feet, and spread itself for three miles on 
the left bank of the A-la-ba-ma. The ordinary width of 
that river, taken at the first bluff" below the fork, is one 
hundred and fifty y'ds. This bluff" is on the left side, 
and forty-five feet high. On this bluff" are five conic 
mounds of earth, the largest thirty yards diameter at the 
base, and seventeen feet high ; the others are smaller. 

It has been for sometime a subject of enquiry, when, 
and f"or what purpose, these mounds were raised ; here it 
explains itself as to the purpose ; unquestionably they 
were intended as a place of safety to the people, in the 
time of these ffoods ; and this is the tradition among the 
old people. As these Indians came from the other side 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 39 

of the Mississippi, and that river spreads out on that side 
for a great distance, it is probable, the erection of mounds 
originated there ; or from the custom of the Indians here- 
tofore, of setthng on rich flats bordering on the rivers, 
and subject to be overflowed. The name is o-cun-lt-ge, 
mounds of earth, or literally, earth placed. But why erect 
these mounds in high places, incontestably out of the* 
reach of floods ? From a superstitious veneration for an- 
cient customs. 

The Alabama overflows its flat swampy margins, annu- 
ally ; and, generally, in the month of March, but seldom 
in the summer season. 

The people of Tuskogee have some cattle, and a 
fine stock of hogs, more perhaps than any town of the 
nation. One man, Sam Macnack, a half breed, has a 
fine stock of cattle. He had, in 1799, one hundred and 
eighty calves. They have lost their language, and speak 
Creek, and have adopted the customs and manners of the 
Creeks. They have thirty-five gun men. 

14. 0-che-au-po-fau ; from Oche-ub, a hickory tree, and 
po-fau, in, or among, called by the traders, hickory ground. 
It is on the left bank of the Coosau, two miles above the 
fork of the river, and one mile below the falls, on a flat of 
poor land, just below a small stream ; the fields are on 
the right side of the river, on rich flat land -, and this flat 
extends back for two miles, with oak and hickory, then 
pine forest ; the range out in this forest is fine for cattle ; 
reed is abundant in all the branches. 

The falls can be easily passed in canoes, either up or 
down : the rock is very diflerent from that of Tallapoosa ; 
here it is ragged and very coarse granite ; the land bor- 
dering on the left side of the falls, is broivcn or waving, 
gravelly, not rich. At the termination of the falls there 
is a fine little stream, large enough for a small mill, called, 
from the clearness of the water, We-henit-le, good wafer. 
Three and a half miles above the town are ten appie 
trees, planted by the late General McGillivray ; half a 
mile further up are the remains of Old Tal-e-see, formerly 
the residence of Lochlan McGillivray and his son, the 
general. Here are ten apple trees planted by the father, 
and a stone chimney, the remains of a house built by the 

40 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

son, and these are all the improvements left by the father 
and son. 

These people, are some of them, industrious. They 
have forty gun men, nearly three hundred cattle, and some 
horses and hogs ; the family of the general belong to this 
town ; he left one son and two daughters ; the son is in 
Scotland, with his grandfather, and the daughters with 
Sam Mac-nac, a half breed, their uncle; the property is 
much of it wasted. The chiefs have requested the agent 
for Indian affairs, to take charge of the property for the 
son, to prevent its being wasted by the sisters of the 
general, or by their children. Mrs. Durant, the oldest 
sister, has eight children. She is industrious but has no 
economy or management. In possession of fourteen 
working negroes, she seldom makes bread enough, and 
they live poorly. She can spin and weave, and is making 
some feeble efforts to obtain clothing for her family. The 
other sister, vSehoi, has about thirty negroes, is extrava- 
gant and heedless, neither spins nor weaves, and has no 
government of her family. IShe has one son, David Tale, 
who has been educated in Philadelphia and Scotland. He 
promises to do better. 

15. We-wo-cau ; from we-wau, z^a^er and wo-cau, &«rA:- 
ing or roarings as the sound of water at high falls. It lies 
on a creek of the same name, which joins Guc-cun-tal- 
lau-has-see, on its left bank, sixteen miles below that 
town. We-wo-cau is fifteen miles above O-che-au-po- 
fau and four miles from Coosau, on the left side ; the land 
is broken, oak and hickory, with coarse gravel ; the set- 
tlements are spread out, on several small streams, for the 
advantage of the rich flats bordering on them, and for 
their stock ; they have cattle, horses and hogs. Here 
commences the moss, in the beds of the creeks, which 
the cattle are very fond of; horses and cattle fatten very 
soon on it, with a little salt; it is of quick growth, found 
only in the rocky beds of the creeks and rivers north from 

The hills which surround the town are stoney, and unfit 
for culture ; the streams all have reed, and there are some 
fine licks near the town, where it is conjectured salt might 
be made. The land on the right side of the creek, is 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 41 

poor pine barren hills, to the falls. The number of gun 
men is estimated at forty. 

16. PuC'Cun-tal-lau-has-see ; from E-puccun-nau, a mat/- 
apple, and tal-lau-has-see, old town. It is in the fork of a 
creek which gives name to the town ; the creek joins on 
the left side of Coosau, forty miles below Coosau town. 

17. Coosau; on the left bank of Coo-sau, between 
two creeks, Eu-fau-lau and Nau-che. The town borders 
on the first, above ; and on the other below^ ; they are a 
quarter of a mile apart at their junction with the river. 
The town is on a high and beautiful hill ; the land on the 
river is rich and flat for two hundred yards, then waving 
and rich, fine for wheat and corn. It is a limestone coun- 
try, with fine springs, and a very desirable one ; there is 
reed on the branches, and pea-vine in the rich bottoms 
and hill sides, moss in the river and on the rock beds of 
the creek. 

They get fish plentifully in the spring season, near the 
mouth of Eu-fau-lau-hat-che ; they are rock, trout, buf- 
faloe, red horse and perch. They have fine stocks of 
horses, hogs and cattle ; the town gives name to the river, 
and is sixty miles above Tus-ke-gee. 

18. Au-be-coo-che, is on Nau-che creek, five miles from 
the river, on the right bank of the creek, on a flat one 
mile wide. The growth is hard-shelled hickory. The 
town spreads itself out and is scattered on both sides of 
the creek, in the neighborhood of very high hills, which 
descend back into waving, rich land, fine for wheat or 
corn ; the bottoms all rich ; the neighborhood abounds in 
limestone, and large limestone springs ; they have one 
above, and one below the town ; the timber on the rich 
lands is oak, hickory, walnut, poplar and mulberry. 

There is a very large cave north of the town, the en- 
trance of which is small, on the side of a hill. It is 
much divided, and some of the rooms appear as the w^ork 
of art ; the doors regular ; in several parts of the cave 
saltpetre is to be seen in crystals. On We-wo-cau creek, 
there is a fine mill seat ; the water is contracted by two 
hills ; the fall twenty feet ; and the land in the neighbor- 
hood very rich ; cane is found on the creeks, and reed 
on the branches. From one or two experiments, tobacco 
grows well on these lands. 

43 A Sketch of tlie Creek Country. 

This town is one of the oldest in the nation ; and some- 
times, among the oldest chiefs, it gives name to the na- 
tion, Au-be-cuh. Here some of the oldest customs had 
their origin. The law against adultery was passed here, 
and that to regulate marriages. To constitute legal mar- 
riage, a man must build a house, make his crop and gather 
it in, then make his hunt and bring home the meat ; put- 
ting all this in the possession of his wife, ends the ceremony 
and they are married, or as the Indians express it, the 
woman is bound, and not till then. This information is 
obtained from Co-tau-lau, (Tus-se-ki-ah Mic-co,) an old 
and respectable chief, descended from Nau-che. He lives 
near We-o-coof-ke, has accumulated a handsome prop- 
erty, owns a fine stock, is a man of much information, 
and of great influence among the Indians of the towns 
in the neighberhood of this. 

They have no fences, and but a few hogs, horses and 
cattle ; they are attentive to white people who live among 
them, and particularly so to white women. 

19. Nau-chee ; on Nauchee creek, five miles above Au- 
be-coo-che, below the fork of the creek, on a rich flat 
of land, of a mile in width, between two small mountains. 
This flat extends from the town three-quarters of a mile 
above the town house. The settlements are scattered on 
both sides of the creek for two miles ; they have no worm 
fences, and but little stock. One chief, a brother of 
Chin-a-be, has a large stock of hogs, and had ninety fit 
for market, in 1798. 

This town is the remains of the Nat-chez who lived on 
the Mis-sis-sip-pi. They estimate their number of gun 
men at one hundred ; but they are, probably, not more 
than fifty. The land, oft' from the mountains, is rich ; the 
flats on the streams are large and very rich ; the high, 
waving country is very healthy and well watered ; cane 
grows on the creeks, reed on the branches, and pea-vine 
on the flats and hill sides. The Indians get the root they 
call tal-e-wau, in this neighborhood ; which the women 
mix with bears' oil, to redden their hair. 

20. Eu-fau-lau-hat-chey is fifteen miles up that creek, 
on a flat of half a mile, bordering on a branch. On the 
left side of the creek, the land is rich and waving ; on 
the right sides are steep hills sloping ofi", waving, rich 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 43 

land ; hickory, oak, poplar and walnut. It is well watered, 
and the whole a desirable limestone country ; they have 
fine stocks of cattle, horses and hogs. 

21. Woc-co-coic; from woc-co, a blow-horn, and coie, a 
nest, these birds formerly had their young here. It is on 
Tote-pauf-cau creek, a branch of Po-chuse-hat-che, which 
joins the Coo-sau, below Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see. The 
land is very broken, sharp-hilly and stoney ; the bottoms 
and the fields are on the small bends and narrow strips of 
the creek; the country, off from the town, is broken. 

These people have some horses, hogs and cattle ; the range 
good ; moss, plenty in the creeks, and reed in the branches. 
Such is the attachment of horses to this moss, or as the 
traders call it, salt grass, that when they are removed, 
they retain so great a fondness for it, that they will at- 
tempt, from any distance within the neighboring nations, 
to return to it. 

22. Hill-au-hee ; on Col-luffa-de, which joins Hill-au- 
bee creek, on the right side, one mile below the town. 
Hili-au-bee joins the Tallapoosa on its right bank, eight 
miles below New-yau-cau. One chief only, Ne-hau-thluc- 
co Hau-jo, resides in the town ; the people are settled out 
in the four following villages. 

1st. Thh-tioo-che au-bau-lau ; from thlen-ne, a moun- 
tain, oo-che, little, and au-bau-lau, over. The name is ex- 
pressive of its position. It is situated over a little moun- 
tain, fifteen miles above the town, on the northwest branch 
of Hill-au-bee creek ; the town house of this village is on 
the left side of the creeL 

2d. Au-net-te chap-co ; from au-net-te, a swamp, and 
chapco, long. It is situated on Choo-fun-tau-lau-hat-che, 
which joins Hill-au-bee creek, three miles north from the 
town J the village is ten miles above the town. 

3rd. E-chuse-is-li-gau ; (where a young thing was 
found.) A young child was found here, and that circum- 
stance gives it the name. This village is four miles below 
the town, on the left side of Hill-au-bee creek. 

4th. Ook'tau-hau-zau-see ; from ook-tau-hau, sand, and 
zau-see, a great deal. It is two miles from the town, on a 
creek of that name, a branch of Hill-au-bee, which it 
joins a quarter of a mile below Col-luffa-dee, at a great 

44 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

The land on these creeks, within the scope of the four 
villages, is broken and stoney, with coar.-e gravel ; the 
bottoms and small bends of the creeks and branches, are 
rich. The upland is generally stiff, rich and fit for cul- 
ture. Post oak, black oak, pine and hickory, all small, 
are the growth. The whole abounds in veins of reeds, 
and reedy branches. They call this the winter reed, as it 
clusters like the cane. 

The villages are badly fenced, the Indians are attentive 
to their traders ; and several of them are careful of stock, 
and have cattle and hogs, and some few have horses. 
Four half breeds have fine stocks of cattle. Thomas has 
one hundred and thirty cattle and ten horses. Au-wil- 
au-gee, the wife of 0-pi-o-che-tus-tun-nug-gee, has seven 
cattle. These Indians promised the agent, in 1799, to. 
begin and fence their fields ; they have one hundred and 
seventy gun men in the four villages. 

Robert Grierson, the trader, a native of Scotland, has 
by a steady conduct, contributed to mend the manners of 
these people. He has tive children, half breeds, and gov- 
erns them as Indians, and makes them and his whole 1am- 
ily respect him, and is the only man who does so, in the 
Upper Creeks. He has three hundred cattle and thirty 
horses ; he has, on the recommendation of the agent for 
Indian affairs, set up a manufactory of cotton cloth ; he 
plants the green-seed cotton, it being too cold for the black- 
seed. He has raised a quantity for market, but finds it 
more profitable to manufacture it ; he has employed an 
active girl of Georgia, Rachael Spillard, who was in the 
Cherokee department, to superintend, and allows her two 
hundred dollars per annum. He employs eleven hands, 
red, white and black, in spinning and weaving, and the 
other part of his family in raising and preparing the cot- 
ton for them. His wife, an Indian woman, spins, and is 
fond of it ; and he has a little daughter who spins well. 
He employs the Indian women to gather in the cotton 
from the fields, and has expectations of prevailing on them 
to take an active part in spinning. 

Hill-au-bee creek has a rocky bottom, covered in many 
places with moss. In the spring of the year, the cattle 
of the villages crowd after it, and are fond of it. From 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 45 

thence they are collected together by their owners, to 
mark and brand the young ones. 

The climate is mild ; the water seldom freezes ; they 
have mast every other year, and peaches for the three last 
years. The range is a good one for stock. The owners 
of horses have a place called a stomp. They select a 
place of good food, cut down a tree or two, and make 
salt logs. Here the horses gather of themselves, in the 
fly season. They have in the villages a few thrivino- 
peach trees, and there is much gravelly land, which would 
be fine for them. 

23. Oc-fus-kee ; from Oc, in, and fuskee, a point. The 
name is expressive of the position of the old town, and 
where the town house now stands on the right bank of 
Tal-la-poo-sa. The town spreads out on both sides of 
the river, and is about thirty-five miles above Took-au- 
bat-che. The settlers on the left side of the river, are 
from Chat-to-ho-che. They once formed three well set- 
tled villages on that river. Che-luc-co ne-ne, Ho-ith-le-ti- 
gau and Chau-kethluc-co. 

Oc-fus-kee with its villages, is the largest town in the 
nation. They estimate the number of gun men of the 
old town, at one hundred and eighty ; and two hundred 
and seventy in the villages or small towns. The land is 
flat for half a mile on the river, and fit for culture ; back 
of this, there are sharp, stoney hills, the growth is pine, 
and'the branches all have reed. 

They have no fences around the town ; they have some 
cattle, hogs and horses, and their range is a good one ; 
the shoals in the river aflbrd a great supply of moss, called 
by the traders salt grass ; and the cows which frequent 
these shoals, are the largest and finest in the nation ; they 
have some peach trees in the town, and the cassine yupon, 
in clumps. The Indians have lately moved out and set- 
tled in villages, and the town will soon be an old field ; 
the settling out in villages, has been repeatedly pressed 
by the agent for Indian aftairs, and with considerable suc- 
cess ; they have seven villages belonging to this town. 

1st. New-yau-cau ; named after New York. It is on 
the left bank of Tallapoosa, twenty miles above Oc-fus- 
kee ; these people lived formerly at Tote-pauf-cau, (spunk- 
knot,) on Chat-to-ho-che, and moved from thence in J 777. 

46 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

They would not take part in the war between the United 
States and Great Britain, and determined to retire from 
their settlements, which, through the rage of war, might 
feel the effects of the resentment of the people of the 
United States, when roused by the conduct of the red 
people, as they were placed between the combatants. 
The town is on a flat, bordering on the river ; the adjoin- 
ing lands are broken or waving and stony ; on the oppo- 
site side they arc broken, stony ; the growth is pine, oak 
and hickory. Tiie flat strips of land on the river, above 
and below, are generally narrow ; the adjoining land is 
broken, with oak, hickory and pine. The branches all have 
reed ; they have a fine ford at the upper end of the town; 
the river is one hundred and twenty yards wide. Some 
of the people have settled out from the town, and they 
have good land on Inn-nook-fau creek, which joins the 
right side of the river, two miles below the town. 

2d. Took-au-bat-che tal-lau-has-see ; this village received 
in part a new name in 1797. Tal-lo-wau mu-chos-see, 
(new town.) It is on the right bank of the river, four 
miles above New-yau-cau ; the land around it is broken 
and stony ; off from the river the hills are waving ; and 
post oak, hard shelled hickory, pine, and on the ridges, 
chesnut is the growth. 

3rd. Im-mook-fau ; (a gorget made of a conch.) This 
villase is four miles west from Tookaubatche Tal-lau- 
has-see, on Immookfau creek, which joins the right side 
of Tallapoosa, two miles below New-yau-cau. The set- 
tlers are from Thu-le-oc-who-cat-lau and Sooc-he-ah ; 
they have fine rich flats on the creek, and a good range 
for their cattle ; they possess some hogs, cattle and horses, 
and begin to be attentive to them. 

4th. Tooh-to-cau-gee ; from tooh-to, a corn house, and 
cau-gee, fixed or standing. The Indians of Oc-fus-kee, 
formerly built a corn house here, for the convenience of 
their hunters, and put their corn there for their support, 
during the hunting season. It is on the right bank of Tal- 
lapoosa, twenty miles above New-yau-cau ; the settle- 
ments are on the narrow flat margins of the river, on both 
sides. On the left side the mountains terminate here, the 
uplands are too poor and broken for cultivation ; the 
path Irom E-tow-wah, in the Cherokee country, over the 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 4£f 

tops of these mountains, is a pretty ^ood one. It winds 
down the mountains to this village ; the river is here one 
hundred and twenty yards wide, a beautiful clear stream. 
On the right side, off" from the river flats, the land is 
waving, with oak, hickory and pine, gravelly, and in 
some places large sheets of rock which wave as the land. 
The grit is coarse, but some of it is fit for mill stones ; the 
land is good for corn, the trees are all small, with some 
chesnut on the ridges ; the range is a good one for stock ; 
reed is found on all the branches ; on the path to New- 
yau-cau, there is some large rock ; the vein lies south- 
west ; they are in two rows parallel with each other, and 
the land good in their neighborhood 

5th. Au-che-nau-ul'gau ; from Au-che-nau, cedar ; and 
ul-gau, a// ; a cedar grove. These settlers are from Loo- 
chau po-gau, (the resort of terrapins.) It is on a creek,, 
near the old town, forty miles above New-yau-cau, This 
settlement is the farthest north of all the Creeks ; the land 
is very broken in the neighborhood. West of this village 
a few miles, there are large reedy glades in flat land ; red, 
post and black oak, all small ; the soil is dark and stifl*, 
with coarse gravel, and in some places stone ; from the 
color of the earth in places, there must be iron ore ; the 
streams from the glades form fine little creeks, branches 
of the Tallapoosa. The land on their borders is broken, 
stiff", stony and rich, affording fine mill seats, and on the 
whole it is a country where the Indians might have desir- 
able settlements ; the path from E-tow-woh to Hill-au- 
bee passes through these glades. 

6th. E-pe-sau-gee ; this village is on a large creek which 
gives name to it, and enters the Tallapoosa, opposite Oc- 
fus-kee. The creek has its source in the ridge, dividing 
the waters of this river from Chat-to-ho-che ; it is thirty 
yards wide, and has a rocky bottom ; they have forty 
settlers in the village, wlio have fenced their fields this 
season, for the benefit of their stock, and they have all 
of them cattle, hogs and horses. They have some good 
land on the creek, but generally it is broken, the strips of 
flat land are narrow; the broken is gravelly, with oak, 
hickory and pine, not very inviting. Four of these vil- 
lages have valuable stocks of cattle. McCartney has one 

48 A Sketch of the Creek Country, 

hundred ; Ecun-cha-te E-maut-lau, one hundred ; lote- 
cuh Haujo, one hundred, and Tools Micco, two hundred. 
7th. Sooc-he-ah ; from Sooc-cau, a hog ; and heah, here, 
called by the traders, hog range. It is situated on the 
right bank of Tallapoosa, twelve miles above Oc-fus-kee. 
It is a small settlement ; the land is very broken ; the flats 
on the river are narrow ; the river broad and shoally. 
These settlers have moved, and joined Immookfau, with a 
few exceptions. 

24. Eu'fau-laii ; on the right bank of Tallapoosa, five 
miles below Oc-fus-kee, on that side of the river, and but 
two in a direct line ; the lands on the river are fit for cul- 
ture ; but the flats are narrow, joined to pine hills and 
reedy branches. 

They have hogs and cattle, and the range is a good 
one ; they have moss in the shoals of the river ; there 
are, belonging to this town, seventy gun men, and they 
have begun to settle out for the benefit of their stock. 
This season, some of the villagers have fenced their 
fields. They have some fine land on Hat-che-lus-ta, and 
several settlements there but no fences ; this creek joins 
the right side of the river, two miles below the town. On 
Woc-cau E-hoo-te, this year, 1799, the villagers, five fami- 
lies in all, have fenced their fields, and they have prom- 
ised the agent to use the plough the next season. On 
black creek, Co-no-fix-ico has one hundred cattle, and 
makes butter and cheese. John Townshend, the trader 
of the town, is an honest Englishman, who has resided 
many years in the nation, and raised a numerous family, 
who conduct themselves well. His daughters, who are 
married, conduct themselves well, have stocks of cattle, 
are attentive to them, make butter and cheese, and prom- 
ise to raise cotton and learn to spin. The principal cattle 
holders are, Conofixico, who has one hundred ; Choc-lo 
Emautlau's stock is on the decline, thirty ; Well Geddis 
Taupixa Micco, one hundred ; Co Emautlau, four hun- 
dred, under careful management. John Townshend, one 
hundred and forty, and Sall}^ his daughter, fifty. 

25. Ki-a-li-jee ; on the right side of Kialijee creek, two 
and a half miles below the junction with Hook-choie. 
This creek joins the right side of Tallapoosa, above the 
falls ; all the rich flats of the creek are settled ; the land 

A Sketch of the Creek Country, -tcr 

about the town is poor and broken ; the fields are on the 
narrow tlats, and in the bends of the creek ; the broken 
land is gravelly or stony ; the range for cattle, hogs and 
horses, is the poorest in the nation ; the neighborhood of 
the town and the town itself, has nothing to recommend 
it. The timber is pine, oak and small hickory ; the creek 
is fifteen feet wide, and joins Tallapoosa fifteen miles 
above Took-au-bat-che. They have two villages belong- 
ing to this town. 

1st. Au-che-nau-hat-che ; from au-che, cec?ar ; and hat- 
che, a creek. They have a few settlements on this creek, 
and some fine, thriving peach trees ; the land on the creek 
is broken, but good. 

2d. Hat-che chub-bau ; from hat-che, a creek ; and chub- 
bau, the middle, or half way. This is in the pine forest, a 
poor, ill-chosen site, and there are but a few people. 

The remaining villages of the towns on Coosau and 

I St. Sou-go-hat-che ; from sou-go, a cymbal ; and hat- 
che, a creek. This joins on the left side of Tallapoosa, 
ten miles below Eu-fau-lau. It is a large creek, and the 
land on the forks and to their sources, is stiff" in places, 
and stony. The timber is red oak and small hickory ; 
the flats on the streams are rich, covered with reed ; 
among the branches the land is waving and fit for culti- 

They have thirty gun men in this village, who have 
lately joined Tal-e-see. One of the chiefs. 0-fau-mul- 
gau, has some cattle, others have a few, as they have only 
paid attention to their stock within two years, and their 
means for acquiring them were slender. 

Above this creek, on the waters of Eu-fau-lau-hat-che, 
there are some settlements well chosen. The upland is 
stiff and stony or gravellv; the timber is post and red 
oak, pine and hickory ; the trees are small ; the soil ap- 
parently rich enough, and well suited for wheat, and the 
streams have some rich flats. 

2d. Thlot-lo-gul-gau ; from thlot-lo, fish ; and ul-gau, 
all ; called by the traders fish ponds. It is on a small, 
pond-like creek, a branch of Ul-kau-hat-che, which joins 
Tallapoosa four miles above Ocfuskee, on the right side. 
The town is fourteen miles up the creek ; the land about 

50 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

it is open and waving ; the soil is dark and gravelly ; the 
general growth of trees is the small hickory ; they have 
reed in the branches. 

Hannah Hale resides here. She was taken a prisoner 
from Georgia, when about eleven or twelve years old, and 
married the head man of this town, by whom she has five 
children. This woman spins and weaves, and has taught 
two of her daughters to spin ; she has labored under 
many difficulties ; yet by her industry has acquired 
some property. She has one negro boy, a horse or 
two, sixty cattle, and some hogs ; she received the friendly 
attention of the agent for Indian affairs, as soon as he 
came in the nation. He furnished her with a wheel, loom, 
and cards ; she has an orchard of peach and apple trees. 
Having made her election at the national council, in 1799, 
to reside in the nation, the agent appointed Hopoithle 
Haujo to look out for a suitable place for her, to help her 
to remove to it with her stock, and take care that she 
receives no insults from the Indians. 

3d. 0-pil-thluc-co ; from O-pil-lo-wau, a swamp ; and 
thluc-co, big. It is situated on a creek of that name, 
which joins i*uc-cun-tal-lau-has-see on the left side. It is 
twenty miles from Coosau river ; the land about this vil- 
lage is round, flat hills, thickets of hickory saplins, and on 
the hill sides and their tops, hickory grub and grape vines. 
The land bordering on the creek is rich, and here are 
their fields. 

4th. Pin-e-hoO'te ; from pin-e-wau, a turkey ; and choo- 
te, Jiouse. It is on the right side of a fine little creek, a 
branch of E-pee-sau-gee. The land is stiff and rich, and 
lies well ; the timber is red oak and hickory ; the branches 
all have reed, and the land on tliem, above the settlement, 
is good black oak, saplin and hickory. This, and the 
neighboring land, is fine for settlement ; they have here 
three or four houses only, some peach trees and hogs, and 
their fields are fenced. The path from New-yau-cau to 
Cou-e-tuh-tal-lau-has-see passes by these houses. 

5th. Po-chuse-hat-che ; from po-chu-so-wau, a hatchet, 
and hat-che, a creek. This creek joins Coosau, four miles 
below Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see, on its right bank ; this vil- 
lage is high up the creek, nearly forty miles from its 
mouth, on a flat bend on the right side of the creek ; the 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 51 

settlements extend up and down the creek for a mile. A 
mile and a half above the settlements there is a large 
canebrake, three-quarters of a mile through, and three or 
four miles in length. 

The land adjoining the settlement is waving and rich, 
with oaiv, hickory, and poplar. The branches all have 
reed ; the neighboring lands above these settlements, are 
fine ; those beiow, are high, broken hiils. It is situated 
between Hill-au-bee and Woc-co-coie, about ten miles 
from each town ; three miles west of the town, there is a 
small mountain ; they have some hogs. 

6th. Oc-fus-coo-che ; (little Ocfuskee ;) is a part of the 
small village, four miles above New-yau-cau. Some of 
these people lived at Oc-fus-kee-nene, on the Chat-to-ho- 
che, from whence they were driven by an enterprising 
volunteer party from Georgia, the 27th September, 1793. 

The toums classed, and a Commander appointed over 

each class. 

At a meeting of the national council, convened by order 
of the agent for Indian affairs, at Tookaubatche, the 27th 
November, 1799, the chiefs, after a long and solemn delib- 
eration, on the affairs of the nation, which were laid before 
them by the agent for Indian affairs, came to a resolution 
to adopt the plan of the agent, " to class all the towns, 
and to appoint a warrior over each class, denominated the 
warrior of the nation." 

The towns thus classed, with the warriors for the nation, 
are : — 

1st. Hook-choie, We-wo-cau, Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see, 
O-pil-thluc-co and Thlot-lo-gul-gau. For these five towns 
they appointed Sim-mo-me-jee of Wewocau. 

2d. Ki-a-li-jee and Eu-fau-lau. For these two towns, 
they appointed E-maut-lau Hut-ke. 

3d. Hill-au-bee, Woc-co-coie and Pochusehatche. For 
these three towns they appointed Cussetuh Tus-tun-nug- 
gee, of Hill-au-bee, and Thle-chum-me Tustunnuggee, of 

4th. Au-bee-coo-che, Nau-che, Coosau and Eu-fau-lau- 
hat-che. For these four towns, they appointed Olohtau 

52 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

5th. Ilo-ith-le-wau-le, Ecunhutke, Sauvanogee, Mook- 
lau-sau and Took au-bat-che. For these five towns, they 
appointed O-poie E-maut-laii, of llo ith-le-wau-le. 

These five classes comprise the towns called Ke-pau- 
yau, or warriors of the nation. But on the present occa- 
sion, when their existence as a nation depends on their 
ability to carry the laws into eflfect, the chiefs assembled 
unanimously agreed that the E-tall-wau, white lowns,, should 
be classed as warriors. 

6th. Oc-fus-kee and its villages, Sooc-he-ah, New-yau- 
cau, Im-mook-fiiu, Took-au-bat-che, Tal-lau-has-see,Took- 
to-cau-gee, Au-che-nau-ulgau, Oc-fus-coo-che and E-pe- 
sau-gee. For this town and its villages, they appointed 
Hopoie Tus-tun-nug-gee, of Oc-fus-kee, and Tal-lo-wau- 
thlucco Tus-tun-nug-gee. 

7th. O-che-au-po-fau and Tus-kee-gee. For these two 
towns, they appointed Ho-po-ithle Ho-poie. 

8th. Tal-e-see, Aut-tos-see, Foosce-hat-che and Coo-loo- 
me. For these four towns, they appointed Foosce-hat- 
che Tus-tun-nug-gee, of Tal-e-see, and Eu-fau-lau Tus-tun- 
nug-gee, of Foosce-hat-che. 

9th. Hook-choie-oo-che, Coo-sau-dee, E-cun-cha-te, 
Too-wos-sau, Pau-woc-te, and At-tau-gee. For these 
towns and villages, they appointed Ho-ith-le-poie Hau-jo 
and Tus-tun-nuc, of Hook-choie-oo-clie. 

6 and 8 are E-tall-wau, or white towns. 

The towns on Chat-to-ho-che, generally called the 
Lower Creeks. 

The name of this river is from Chat-to, a stone ; and 
ho-che, marked or flowered ; there being rocks of that 
description in the river, above Ho-ith-le-ti-gau, at the old 
town Chat-to-ho-che. 

1. Cow-e-tugh ; on the right bank of Chat-to-ho-che, 
three miles below the falls, on a flat extending back one 
mile. The land is fine for corn ; the settlements extend 
up the river for two miles on the river fiats. These are 
bordered with broken pine land ; the fields of the settlers 
who reside in the town, are on a point of land formed by 
a bend of the river, a part of them adjoining the point, 
are low, then a rise of fifteen i'eet, spreading back for 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 53 

half a mile, then another rise of fifteen feet, and flat a 
half a mile to a swamp adjoining the high lands ; the 
fields are below the town. 

The river is one hundred and twenty yards wide, with 
a deep steady current from the fall ; these are over a 
rough, coarse rock, forming some islands of rock, which 
force the water into two narrow channels, in time of low 
water. One is on each side of the river, in the whole 
about ninety feet wide ; that on the right is sixty feet 
wide, with a perpendicular fall of 'twelve feet; the other 
of thirty feet wide, is a long sloping curve, very rapid, the 
fall fifteen feet in one hundred and fifty feet ; fish may 
ascend in this channel, but it is too swift and strong for 
boats ; here are two fisheries ; one on the right belongs 
to this town ; that on the left, to the Cussetuhs ; they are 
at the termination of the falls ; and the fish are taken 
with scoop nets ; the fish taken here are, the hickory 
shad, rock, trout, perch, cat fish, and suckers ; there is 
sturgeon in the river, but no white shad or herring ; dur- 
ing spring and summer, they catch the perch and rock 
with hooks. As soon as the fish make their appearance, 
the chiefs send out the women, and make them fish for 
the square. This expression includes all the chiefs and 
warriors of the town. 

The land on the right bank of the river at the falls, is 
a poor pine barren, to the water's edge ; the pines are 
small ; the falls continue three or four miles nearly of the 
same width, about one hundred and twenty yards ; the 
river then expands to thrice that width, the bottom being 
gravelly, shoal and rocky ; there are several small islands 
within this scope ; one at the part where the expansion com- 
mences is rich and some part of it under cultivation ; it is 
half a mile in length, but narrow ; here the river is fordable ; 
enter the left bank one hundred yards above the upper 
end of the island, and cross over to it, and down to the 
fields, thence cross the other channel ; at the termination of 
the falls, a creek twenty feet wide, (0-cow-oculi-hat-che, 
falls creek,) joins the right side of the river. Just below 
this creek, and above the last reef of rocks, is another 
ford. The current is rapid, and the bottom even. 

In ascending the river on this side, on the river path, 

54 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

travelling at the rate of three miles the hour, the following 
distances are noted. 

Ih. 30in. Cross a creek running to the right, three feet 
wide. The land, the whole distance, is poor, 
broken and unfit for culture. 
12m. Some settlements on the river bank, at We- 

at-lo-tuck-e. The land is stiff and rich. 
58m. Cross Hatche Canaue, (crooked creek,) run- 
ning to the right, ten feet wide ; the land stiff 
and good ; oak, hickory, and a few poplar. 
39m. Chat-to-hat-che, (stony creek,) running to 
the right ten feet wide ; the land broken and 
poor. There is one settlement on the path, and 
one at the creek. 
49m. Woc-coo-che, (calf creek,) over broken 
land ; pine, willow-leaved hickory, and post 
oak ; the land bordering on the creek is rich ; 
there is one plantation, on the left bank, under 
fence, and some peach trees around the houses. 
The creek is forty feet wide and runs to the 
41m. To a creek running to the riidit, bordered 

with fine winter reed. 
55. Hal-e-woc-ke, sixty feet wide, running to the 
right. One plantation on the left bank of the 
creek ; the land broken, chesnut, pine, post oak, 
hickory, and red o-ak. 
27m. To a branch running to the right. 
8m. A reedy branch running to the right, the land 

3m. A branch, reedy, running to the right. 
11m. A reedy branch running to the right. 
17m. O-sun-nup-pau, (moss creek,) sixty feet wide, 
running to the right. The bottom rocky with 
moss ; the land for this stage is broken ; a mixed 
growth of post and red oak, pine and hickory. 
Pn the left bank of the^ river at the falls, the land is 
level ; and in approaching them one is surprised to find 
them where there is no alteration in the trees or uneven- 
ness of land. This level continues back one mile to the 
poor pine barren, and is fine for corn or cotton ; the tim- 
ber is red oak, hickory and pine ; the banks of the river 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 55 

on this side below the falls are fifty feet high, and continue 

so, down below the town house ; the flat of good land 

continues still lower to Hat-che thiuc-co, (big creek.) 

Ascending the river on this bank, above the falls, the 

the following stages are noted in miles. 

2i miles, the flat land terminates ; thence 

3^ miles, to Chis-se hul-cuh running to the left; thence 

4 miles, to Chusse thluc-co twenty feet wide, a rocky 

5 miles, to Ke-ta-le, thirty feet wide, a bold, shoally, 
rocky creek, abounding in moss. Four miles up this 
creek, there is a village cf ten families, at Hat-che 
Uxau, (head of a creek.) The land is broken with hick- 
ory, pine and chesnut ; there is cane on the borders of 
the creek and reed on the branches ; there are some set- 
tlements of Cowetuh people made on these creeks ; all 
who have settled out from the town, have fenced their 
fields, and begin to be attentive to their stock. 

The town has a temporary fence of three poles, the 
first on forks, the other two on stakes, good against cattle 
only ; the town fields are fenced in like manner ; a few 
of the neighborino; fields, detached from the town, have 
good fences ; the temporary, three pole fences of the 
town, are made every spring, or repaired in a slovenly 

Mr. Marshall, the trader here, has sot up a manufactory 
of cotton cloth, at the recommendation of the agent ; the 
cotton raised by him the last season, is fine ; it is the 
green-seed ; the experiment was commenced with the 
green-seed, and this year the black-seed of the seacoast 
has been tried ; it is very good, but the season too short 
for it, although there was no frost this year, 1799, till the 
13th of November. In light, rich, sandy land it will certainly 
succeed. The traders here adopted with spirit, the plan 
of the government; they have made gardens, fenced their 
fields, and they have this year raised wheat, rye, and 

2. Cow-e-tuh Tal-lau-has-see ; from Cow-e-tuh, Tal- ■ 
lo-fau, a town ; and basse, old. It is tu o and a half miles 
below Cowetuh, on the right bank of the river. In going 
down the path between the two towns, in half a mile cross 
Kotes-ke-le-jau, ten feet wide, running to the left is a fine 

56 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

little creek sufficiently large for a mill, in all but the dry 
seasons. On the right bank, enter the flat lands between 
the towns. These are good, with oak, hard-shelled hick- 
ory and pine ; they extend two miles to Che-luc-in-te-ge- 
tuh, a small creek five feet wide, bordering on the town. 
The town is half a mile from the river, on the right bank 
of the creek ; it is on a high flat, bordered on the east by 
the flats of the river, and west by high broken hills ; they 
have but a few settlers in the town ; the fields are on a 
point of land three-quarters of a mile below the town, 
which is very rich, and has been long under cultivation ; 
they have no fence around their fields. 

Here is the public establishment for the Lower Creeks ; 
and here the agent resides. He has a garden well culti- 
vated and planted, with a great variety of vegetables, fruits 
and vines, and an orchard of peach trees. Arrangements 
have been made, to fence two hundred acres of land 
fit for cultivation, and to introduce a regular husbandry to 
serve as a model and stimulus, for the neighboring towns 
who crowd the public shops here, at all seasons, when the 
hunters are not in the woods. 

The agent entertains doubts, already, of succeeding 
here in establishing a regular husbandry, from the diffi- 
culty of changing the old habits of indolence, and sitting 
daily in the squares, which seem peculiarly attractive to 
the residenters of the towns. In the event of not suc- 
ceeding, he intends to move the establishment out from 
the town, and aid the villagers where success seems to be 

They estimate their number of gun men at one hun- 
dred ; but the agent has ascertained, by actual enumera- 
tion, that they have but sixty-six, includmg all who reside 
here, and in the villages belonging to the town. 

They have a fine body of land below, and adjoining the 
town, nearly two thousand acres, all well timbered ; and 
including the whole above and below, they have more 
than is sufficient for the accommodation of the whole 
town ; they have one village belonging to the town, We- 

We-tum-cau ; from we-wau, water ; and tum-cau, rum- 
hUng. It is the main branch of U-chee creek, and is 
twelve miles northwest from the town. These people 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 57 

have a small town house on a poor pine ridge on the left 
bank of the creek below the falls ; the settlers extend up 
the creek for three miles, and they cultivate the rich bends 
of the creek ; there is cane on the creek and fine reed on 
the branches ; the land hif^her up the creek, and on its 
branches is waving, with pine, oak, and hickory, fine for 
cultivation, on the flats and out from the branches ; the 
range is good for stock, and some of the settlers have 
cattle and hogs, and begin to be attentive to them ; they 
have been advised to spread out their settlements on the 
waters of this creek, and to increase their attention to 
stock of every kind. 

3. Ciis-se-tuh ; this town is two and a half miles below 
Cow-e-tuk Tal-lau-has-see, on the left bank of the river. 
They claim the land above the falls on their side. In de- 
scending the river path from the falls, in three miles you 
cross a creek running to the right, twenty feet wide ; this 
creek joins the river a quarter of a mile above the Cow- 
etuh town house ; the land to this creek, is good and level, 
and extends back from the river from half to three-quar- 
ters of a mile to the pine forest ; the growth on the level, 
is oak, hickory and pine ; there arc some ponds and 
slashes back next to the pine forest, bordering on a branch 
which runs parallel with the river ; in the pine forest 
there is some reedy branches. 

The creek has its source nearly twenty miles from the 
river, and runs nearly parallel with it till within one mile 
of its junction ; there it makes a short bend round north, 
thence west to the river ; at the second bend, about two 
hundred yards from the river, a fine little spring creek 
joins on its right bank ; at the first bend north there is a 
mill seat; the water might here be stopped with a dam, 
and taken across by a canal, at a little expense of labor, 
to the river, and the mills might be either here or at the 
river. About one mile up from the bend, there is another 
good mill seat in the neighborhood of the pine forest. 

The flat of good land on the river continues two and a 
half miles below this creek, through the Cussetuh fields 
to Hat-che-thluc-co. At the entrance of the fields on the 
right, there is an oblong mound of earth ; one quarter of 
a mile lower, there is a conic mound forty-five yards in 
diameter at the base, twenty-five feet high, and flat on the 

58 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

top, with mulberry trees on the north side, and evergreens 
on the south. From the top of this mound, they have a 
fine view of the river above the flat land on both sides of 
the river, and all the field of one thousand acres ; the 
river makes a short bend round to the right, opposite this 
mound, and there is a good ford just below the point. It 
is not easy to mistake the ford, as there is a fiat on the 
left, of gravel and sand ; the waters roll rapidly over the 
gravel, and the eye, at the first view, fixes on the most 
fordable part ; there are two other fords below this, which 
communicate between the fields, on both sides of the 
river ; the river from this point comes round to the west, 
then to the east ; the island ford is below this turn, at the 
lower end of a small island ; from the left side, enter the 
river forty yards below the island, and go up to the point 
of it, then turn down as the ripple directs, and land sixty 
yards below ; this is the best ford ; the third is still lower, 
from four to six hundred yards. 

The land back from the fields to the east, rises twenty 
feet, and continues flat for one mile to the pine forest ; 
back of the fields, adjoining the rise of twenty feet, is a 
beaver pond of forty acres, capable of being drained at a 
small expense of labor ; the large creek bounds the fieids, 
and the flat land to the south. 

Continuing on down the river from the creek, the land 
rises to a high flat, formerly the Cussetuh town, and after- 
wards a Chickasaw town. Tliis flat is intersected with one 
branch. From the southern border of this flat, the Cusse- 
tuh town is seen below, on a flat, just above flood mark, 
surrounded with this high flat to the north and east, and 
the river to the west ; the land about the town is poor, 
and much exhausted ; they cultivate but little here of early 
corn ; the principal dependence is on the rich fields above 
the creek ; to call them rich must be understood in a lim- 
ited sense ; they have been so^ but being cultivated be- 
yond the memory of the oldest man in Cussetuh, they are 
almost exhausted ; the produce is brought from the fields 
to the town in canoes or on horses ; they make barely a 
sufficiency of corn for their support ; they have no fences 
around their fields, and only a fence of three poles, tied 
lo upright stakes, for their potatoes ; the land up the 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 59 

river, above the fields, is fine for culture, with oak, hick- 
ory, blackjack and pine. 

The people of Cussetuh associate, more than any other 
Indians, with their white neighbors, and without obtaining 
any advantage from it ; they know not the season for 
planting, or if they do, they never avail themselves of 
what they know, as they always plant a month too late. 

This town with its viI]ao;es is the larg-est in the Lower 
Creeks ; the people are and have been friendly to white 
people, and are fond of visiting them ; the old chiefs are 
very orderly men and much occupied in governing their 
young men, who are rude and disorderly, in proportion to 
the intercourse they have had with white people ; they 
frequently complain of the intercourse of their young 
people with the white people on the frontiers, as being 
very prejudicial to their morals ; that they are more rude, 
more inclined to be tricky, and more difficult to govern, 
than those who do not associate with them. 

The settlements belonging to the town, are spread out 
on the right side of the river ; here they appear to be in- 
dustrious, have forked fences, and more land enclosed 
than they can cultivate. One of them desires particularly 
to be named, Mic E-maut-lau. This old chief has with his 
own labor, made a good worm fence, and built himself a 
comfortable house ; they have but a few peach trees, in 
and about the town ; the main trading path, from the up- 
per towns, passes through here ; they'estirnate their num- 
ber of gun men at three hundred ; but they cannot exceed 
one hundred and eighty. 

Aii-put-tau-e ; a village of Cussetuh, twenty miles from 
the river, on Hat-che thluc-co ; they have good fences, 
and the settlers under the best characters of any among 
the Lower Creeks ; they estimate their gun men at forty- 
three. On a visit here the agent for Indian affairs was 
met by all the men, at the house of Tus-se-kiah Mic-co. 
That chief addressed him in these words ? " Here, I am 
glad to see you ; this is my wife, and these are my chil- 
dren ; they are glad to see you ; these are the men of the 
village ; we have forty of them in all ; they are glad to 
see you ; you are now among those on whom you may 
rely. I have been six years at this village, and we have ' 

60 A Sketch of the Creek Country, 

not a man hero, or belonging to our village, who ever 
stole a horse from, or did any injury to a white man." 

The village is in the forks of Hatche thlucco, and the 
situation is well chosen ; the land is rich, on the margins 
of the creeks and the cane flats ; the tinjber is large, of 
poplar, white oak and hickory ; the uplands to the south, 
are the long-leaf pine ; and to the north waving oak, pine 
and hickory ; cane is on the creeks and reed in all the 

At this village, and at the house of Tus-se-ki-ah Mic- 
co, the agent ibr Indian aftairs has introduced the plough; 
and a farmer was hired in 1797, to tend a crop of corn, 
and with so good success, as to induce several of the vil- 
lagers to prepare their fields for the plough. Some of 
them have cattle, hogs and horses, and are attentive to 
them. The range is a good one, but cattle and horses 
require salt ; they have some thriving peach trees, at sev- 
eral of the settlements. 

On Ouhe-gee creek, called at its junction with the river, 
Hitchetee, there is one settlement which deserves a place 
here. It belongs to Mic-co thluc-co, called bv the white 
people, the " bird tail king." The plantation is on the 
right side of the creek, on good land, in the neighborhood 
of pine forest ; the creek is a fine flowing one, margined 
with reed ; the plantation is well fenced, and cultivated 
with the plough ; this chief had been on a visit to New 
York, and seen nwich of the ways of white people, and 
the advantages of the plough over the slow and laborious 
hand hoe. Yet he had not firmness enough, till this year, 
to break through the old habits of the Indians. The 
agent paid him a visit this spring, 1799, with a plough 
completely fixed, and spent a day with him and showed him 
how to use it. He had previously, while the old man was 
in the woods, prevailed on the family to clear the fields 
for the plough. It has been used with effect, and much 
to the approbation of a numerous family, who have more 
than doubled their crop of corn and potatoes ; and who 
begin to know how to turn their corn to account, by giv- 
ing it to their hogs. This Micco and his family, have 
hogs, cattle and horses, and begin to be very attentive to 
them ; he has some apple and peach trees, and grape 
vines, a present from the agent. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 61 

The Cussetuhs have some cattle, horses and hogs ; but 
they prefer roving idly through the woods, and down on 
the frontiers, to attending to farming or stock raising. 

The three towns just described, have had a powerful 
stimulus to their industry, in the regulations adopted by 
the agent for his supphes. Heretofore, there was no 
market for provisions. The wants ot the traders were 
few, and those procured Avith beads, binding, thread or 
needles. There is now a regular market, and weights and 
measures are introduced. To call the supply of a single 
table a regular market, requires some explanation. The 
annual expenses of the agent's table, for the two last 
years, has been 2,750 dollars; and for 1799, the articles 
were paid for in money and merchandise; 1000 dollars 
of the former, and 1,750 of the latter; this was more 
than would be supplied by the three towns. The prices 
established were : 

Pork, gross, per cwt. $3 00 Capons, per pair . 25 

Pork, net, per hundred 4 00 Fowls, 4 for . . 25 

Bacon, do 10 00 Eggs, per dozen . 12^ 

Beef, do 3 00 Butter per lb. in the 

Corn, per bushel . . 50 spring ... 25 

Potatoes, 50 During summer . 17 

Pumpkins, .... 18 Cheese, .... 17 

Ground Peas, . . . 50 Od of hickory nut per 

Field Peas, ... 1 00 bottle ... 75 

4. U-chee ; is on the right bank of Chat-to-ho-che, ten 
and a half miles below Cow-e-tuh-tal-lau-has-see, on a flat 
of rich land, with hickory, oak, blackjack and long-leaf 
pine ; the flat extends from one to two miles back from 
the river. Above the town, and bordering on it, Uchee 
creek, eighty-five feet wide, joins the river.* Opposite the 
town house, on the left bank of the river, there is a nar- 
row strip of flat land from fifty to one hundred yards 
wide, then high pine barren hills ; these people speak a 
tongue different from the Creeks ; they were formerly 
settled in small villages at Ponpon, Saltketchers, (Sol-ke- 
chuh,) Silver Bluff", and 0-ge-chee, (How-ge-chu,) and were 

• The two forks eight miles up ; on the right, We-tum-cau ; the left, Hosa-po-li-gee, 


62 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

continually at war with the Cherokees, Ea-tau-bau and 

In the year 1729, an old chief of Cussetuh, called by the 
white people Captain Kllick, married three Uchce women, 
and brought them to Cussetuh, which was greatly disliked 
by his towns peojde ; their opposition determined him to 
move from Cussetuh ; he went down opposite where the 
town now is, and settled with his three brothers ; two of 
whom, had Uchee wives ; he, after this, collected all the 
Uchees, gave them the land where their town now is, and 
there they settled. 

These people are more civil and orderly than their 
neighbors ; their women are more chaste, and the men 
better hunters ; they retain all their original customs and 
laws, and have adopted none of the Creeks ; they have 
some worm fences in and about their town, and but very 
few peach trees. 

They have lately begun to settle out in villages, and 
are industrious, compared with their neighbors ; the men 
take part in the labors of the women, and are more con- 
stant in their attachment to their women, than is usual 
among red people. 

The number of gun men is variously estimated ; they do 
not exceed two hundred and fifty, including all who are 
settled in villages, of which they have three. 

1st. In-tuch-cul-gau ; from in-tuch-ke, a dam across 
water ; and ul-gau, all ; applied to heaver dams. This is 
on Opil-thluc-co, twenty-eight miles from its junction with 
Flint river. This creek is sixty feet wide at its mouth, 
one and a half miles above Timothy Barnard's; the land 
bordering on the creek, up to the village, is good. Eight 
miles below the village the good land spreads out for four 
or five miles on both sides of the creek, with oaky woods; 
(Tuck-au-mau-pa-fau ;) the range is fine for cattle ; cane 
grows on the creeks, and reed on all the branches. 

They have fourteen families in the village ; their indus- 
try is increasing ; they built a square in 1798, which 
serves for their town house ; they have a few cattle, hogs 
and horses. 

2d. Pad-gee-li-gau ; from pad-jee, a pidgeon; and li- 
gau, sit ; pidgeon roost. This was formerly a large tOAvn, 
but broken up by Benjamin Harrison and his associates, 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 63 

who murdered sixteen of their gun men in Georgia ; it is 
on the right bank of Flint river, and this creek, adjoining 
the river ; the village takes its name from the creek ; it 
is nine miles below the second falls of the river ; these falls 
are at the Island's ford, where the path now crosses from 
Cussetuh to Fort Wilkinson ; the village is advantageously 
situated ; the land is rich, the range good for cattle and 
hogs ; the swamp is more than three miles through, on 
the left bank of the river, and is high and good cane- 
brake ; on the right bank, it is one mile through, low and 
flat ; the cane, sassafras and sumach, are large ; this ex- 
tensive and valuable swamp extends down on one side or 
the other of the river, for twelve miles. 

They have but a few families there, notwithstanding it 
is one of the best situations the Indians possess, for stock, 
farming and fish. Being a frontier, the great loss they 
sustained in having sixteen of their gun men murdered, 
discourages them from returning. 

3d. Toc-co-gul-egau ; (tad pole ;) a small settlement 
on Kit-cho-foone creek, near some beaver dams on 
branches of that creek ; the land is good but broken ; 
fine range, small canes and pea vines on the hills, and 
reeds on the branches ; they have eight or ten families ; 
this establishment is of two years only, and they have 
worm fences. U-che Will, the head of the village, has 
some cattle, and they have promised to attend to hogs, 
and to follow the direction of the agent for Indian affairs, 
as soon as they can get into stock. 

Some of the lichees have settled with the Shaw-a-nee, 
at Sau-va-no-gee, among the Creeks of the upper towns. 

5. Oose-oo-chee ; is about two miles below Uchee, on 
the right bank of Chat-to-ho-chee ; they formerly hved 
on Flint river, and settling here, they built a hot house in 
1794 ; they cultivate with their neighbors, the Che-au-hau, 
below their land in the point. 

6. Che-au'hau ; called by the traders Che-haws, is just 
below, and adjoining Oosc-oo-che, on a flat of good land. 
Below the town, the river winds round east, then west, mak- 
ing a neck or point of one thousand acres of canebrake, 
very fertile, but low, and subject to be overflowed; the 
land back of this, is level for nearly three miles, with red, 
post, and white oak, hickory, then pine forest. 

64 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

These people have villages on the waters of Fhnt river; 
there they have fine stocks of cattle, horses and hogs, 
and they raise corn, rice and potatoes, in great plenty. 

The following are the villages of this town : 

1st. Au-muc-cul-le ; (pour upon me ;) is on a creek of 
that name, which joins on the right side of P'lint river, 
forty-five miles below Timothy Barnard's. It is sixty feet 
wide, and the main branch of Kitch-o-foo-ne, which it 
joins three miles f;om the river; the village is nine miles 
up the creek ; the land is poor and flat, with limestone 
springs in the neighborhood ; the swamp is' cypress in 
hammocks, with some water oak and hickory ; the pine 
land is poor with ponds and wire grass ; they have sixty 
gun men in the village ; it is in some places well fenced ; 
they have cattle, hogs and horses, and a fine range for 
them, and raise corn, rice and potatoes in great plenty. 

2d. O-tel-le-who-yau-nau ; (hurricane town ;) is six 
miles below Kitch-o-foo-ne, on the right bank of Flint 
river, with pine barren on both sides ; they have twenty 
families in the village, which is fenced ; and they have hogs, 
cattle and horses ; they plant the small margins near the 
mouth of a little creek ; this village is generally named as 
belonging to Che-au-hau ; but they are mixed with Oose- 

3. Che-aU'hoo-che ; (little che-au-hau ;) is one mile and 
a half west from Hit-che-tee, in the pine forest, near Au- 
he-gee ; a fine litile creek, called at its junction with the 
river, Hit-che-tee; they begin to fence and have lately 
built a square. 

7. Hit-che-tee ; is on the left bank of Chat-to-ho-che, 
four miles l)elow Che-au-hau ; they have a narrow strip 
of good land, bordering on the river, and back of this it 
rises into high, poor land, which spreads off flat. In ap- 
proaching the town on this side, there is no rise, but a 
great descent to the town flat ; on the right bank of the 
river the land is level, and extends out for two miles, is 
of thin quality; the growth is post oak, hickory, and 
pine, all small, then pine barren and ponds. 

The appearance about this town indicates much pov- 
erty and indolence ; they have no fences ; they have 
spread out into villages, and have the character of being 
honest and industrious ; they are attentive to the rights 

A Sketch of the Creek Country, 65 

of their white neighbors, and no charge of horse stealing 
from the frontiers, has been substantiated against them. 
The villages are, 

1st. Hit-che-too-che, (Little Hit-chetee,) a small village 
of industrious people, settled on both sides of Flint river, 
below Kit-cho-foo-ne ; they have good fences, cattle, 
horses, and hogs, in a fine range, and are attentive to 

2d. Tut-tal-lo-see ; (fowl ;) on a creek of that name, 
twenty miles west from Hit-che-too-che. This is a fine 
creek on a bed of limestone ; it is a branch of Kitch-o-foo- 
ne ; the land bordering on the creek, and for eight or nine 
miles in the direction towards Hit-che-too-che, is level, 
rich, and fine for cultivation, with post and black oak, 
hickory, dogwood and pine. The villagers have good 
worm fences, appear industrious, and have large stocks of 
cattle, some hogs and horses ; they appear decent and 
orderly, and are desirous of preserving a friendly inter- 
course with their neighbors ; they have this year, 1799, 
built a square. 

8. Pa.-lsi-chooc-le ; is on the right bank of Chat-to-ho- 
che, one and a half miles below Che-au-hau, on a poor, 
pine barren flat ; the land back from it is poor, broken, 
pine land ; their fields are on the left side of the river, on 
poor land. 

This was formerly the first among the Lower Creek 
towns ; a peace town, averse to war, and called by the 
nation, Tal-lo-wau thluc-co, (big town.) The Indians 
are poor, the town has lost its former consequence, and is 
not now much in estimation. 

9. 0-co-nee ; is six miles below Pa-Ia-chooc-le, on the 
left bank of Chat-to-ho-che. It is a small town, the re- 
mains of the settlers of O-co-nee ; they formerly lived just 
below the Rock landing, and gave name to that river ; 
they are increasing in industry, making fences, attending 
to stock, and have some level land moderately rich ; they 
have a few hogs, cattle and horses. 

10. Sau-ivoo-ge-lo ; is six miles below O-co-nee, on the 
right bank of the river, a new settlement in the open pine 
forest. Below this, for four and a half miles, the land is 
flat on the river, and much of it in the bend is good for 
corn. Here We-lau-ne, (yellow water,) a fine flowing 


66 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

creek, joins the river ; and still lower, Co-wag-gee, (par- 
tridge,) a creek sixty yards wide at its mouth. Its source 
is in the ridge dividing its waters from Ko-e-ne-cuh, Choc- 
tau hatche and Telague hatche ; they have some settle- 
ments in this neighborhood, on good land. 

11. Sau-woog-e-loo-che ; is four miles below Oconee, 
on the left bank of the river, in oaky woods, which ex- 
tend back one mile to the pine forest ; they have about 
twenty families, and plant in the bends of the river ; they 
have a few cattle. 

12. Eu-fau-lau ; is fifteen miles below Sau-woog-e-lo, 
on the left bank of the river, on a pine flat ; the fields are 
on both sides of the river, on rich flats ; below the town 
the land is good. 

These people are very poor, but generally well behaved 
and very friendly to white people ; they are not given to 
horse-stealing, have some stock, are attentive to it ; they 
have some land fenced, and are preparing for more ; they 
have spread out their settlements down the river, about 
eight miles below the town, counting on the river path, 
there is a little village? on good land, 0-ke-teyoc-en-ne. 
Some of the settlements are well fenced ; they raise 
plenty of corn and rice, and the range is a good one for 

From this village, they have settlements down as low 
as the forks of the river ; and they are generally on sites 
well chosen, some of them well cultivated ; they raise 
plenty of corn and rice, and have cattle, horses and hogs. 

Several of these Indians have negroes, taken during the 
revolutionary war, and where they are, there is more industry 
and better farms. These negroes were, many of them, 
given by the agents of Great Britain to the Indians, in 
payment for their services, and they generally call them- 
selves " King''s gifts.'''' The negroes are all of them, at- 
tentive and friendly to white people, particularly so to 
those in authority. 

Timothy Barnard's. 

This gentleman lives on the right bank of Flint river, 
fifteen miles below Pad-je-li-gau. He has eleven children 
by a U-chec woman, and they are settled with and around 
him, and have fine stocks of cattle in an excellent ran^e. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 67 

He has a valuable property, but not productive ; his farm 
is well fenced on both sides of the river ; he has a peach 
orchard of fine fruit, and some fine nectarines, a garden 
well stored with vegetables, and some grape vines pre- 
sented to him by the agent. He is an assistant and inter- 
preter, and a man who has uniformly supported an honest 
character, friendly to peace during the revolutionary war, 
and to man. He has forty sheep, some goats, and stock 
of every description, and keeps a very hospitable house. 
He is not much acquainted with farming, and receives 
light slowly on this subject, as is the case with all the In- 
dian countrymen, without exception. 


The Creeks never had, till this year, a national govern- 
ment and law. Every thing of a general tendency, was 
left to the care and management of the public agents, who 
heretofore used temporary expedients only ; and amongst 
the most powerful and persuasive, was the pressure of 
fear from without, and presents. The attempt, in the 
course of the last and present year, to establish a national 
council, to meet annually, and to make general regula- 
tions for the welfare of the nation, promises to succeed. 
The law passed at the first meeting, to punish thieves and 
mischief-makers, has been carried into effect, in a ^ew 
instances, where the personal influence of the agent for 
Indian affairs, was greatly exerted. On a trying occa- 
sion, the chiefs were called on to turn out the warriors, 
and to punish the leaders of the banditti, who insulted 
the commissioners of Spain and the United States, on 
the 17th of September. After this was repeatedly urged, 
and the agent agreed to be responsible for all the conse- 
quences, the chiefs turned out the warriors, and executed 
the law on the leader and a few of his associates, in an 
exemplary manner. While this transaction was fresh in 
the minds of the Indians, the agent for Indian affairs 
convened the national council, and made a report on the 
state of the nation to them, accompanied with his opinion 
of the plan indispensably necessary, to carry the laws of 
the nation into effect. 

The council, after mature deliberation, determined that 

68 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

the safety of the nation was at stake ; that having a firm 
rehance on the justice of the President of the United 
States, and the friendly attention of his agent for Indian 
affairs, they would adopt his plan. 

1st. To class the towns, and appoint a warrior over 
each class, denominated the warrior of the nation, to su- 
perintend the execution of the law. 

12d. To declare as law, that when a man is punished by 
the law of the nation, and dies, that it is the law that 
killed him. It is the nation who killed him ; and that no 
man or family is to be held accountable for this act of 
the nation. 

3d. That all mischief-makers and thieves, of any coun- 
try of white people, shall be under the government of the 
agent for Indian affairs, and that he may introduce the 
troops of the United States to any part of the Creek 
country, to punish such persons ; and that, when he calls 
in the troops of the United States, he is to call for such 
number of warriors as he may deem proper, to accom- 
pany them, to be under pay : that, in apprehending or 
punishing any white person, if Indians should interpose^ 
the red warriors are to order them to desist ; and if they 
refuse, the agent may order them to fire, at the same time 
ordering the troops of the United States to make com- 
mon cause. 

Government of the Towns, 

The towns, separately, have a government and cus- 
toms, which they derive from a high source. They have 
their public buildings, as well for business as pleasure ; 
every town has a chief who presides over the whole ; he 
is their Mic-co, called by the white people, " King." The 
grades from him are regular and uniform, throughout all 
the towns. In the description of the public buildings, 
these grades will be explained. 

The Public Buildings. 

CO, (big house,) the to^ 

:s of four square buildi 

facing each other, forty by sixteen feet, eight feet pitch 5 

''' Choo-co-thluc-co, (big house,) the town house or pub 
lie square, consists of four square buildings of one storj^i 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 69 

the entrance at each corner. Each building is a wooden 
frame, supported on posts set in the ground, covered with 
slabs, open in front like a piazza, divided into three rooms, 
the back and ends clayed, up to the plates. Each divis- 
ion is divided lengthwise, into two seats ; the front, two 
feet high, extendmg back half way, covered with reed- 
mats or slabs ; then a rise of one foot, and it extends 
back, covered in like manner, to the side of the building. 
On these seats, they lie or sit at pleasure. 

The rank of the Buildings which form the Square. 

1st. Mic-ul-gee in-too-pau, the Mic-co^s cabin. This 
fronts the cast, and is occupied by those of the highest 
rank ; the centre of the building is always occupied by 
the Mic-co of the town ; by the agent for Indian affairs 
when he pays a vist to a town ; by the Mic-cos of other 
towns, and by respectable white people. 

The division to the right is occupied by the Mic-ug- 
gee, (Miccos, there being several so called in every town, 
from custom, the origin of which is unknown,) and the 
counsellors. These two classes give their advice, in re- 
lation to war, and are in fact the principal counsellors. 

The division to the left, is occupied by the E-ne-hau 
Ul-gee, (people second in command, the head of whom 
is called by the traders, second man.) These have the di- 
rection of the public works appertaining to the town, 
such as the public buildings, building houses in town for 
new settlers, or working in the fields. They are particu- 
larly charged with the ceremony of the a-ce, (a decoction 
of the cassine yupon, called l)y the traders black drink,) 
under the direction of the Mic-co. 

The Mic-co of the town superintends all public and 
domestic concerns ; receives all public characters ; hears 
their talks ; lays them before the town, and delivers the 
talks of his town. The Mic-co of a town is always 
chosen from some one family. The Mic-co of Tuck-au- 
bat-che is of the eagle tribe, (Lum-ul-gee.) After he is 
chosen and put on his seat, he remains for life. On his 
death, if his nephews are fit for the office, one of them 
takes his place as his successor ; if they are unfit, one 
is chosen of the next of kin, the descent being always in 

70 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

the female line. They have, in this town, a Mic-co of an- 
other family, the Is-po-co-gee Mic-co, the ancient name 
of the town. 

When a Mic-co, from age, infirmity, or any other cause, 
wants an assistant, he selects a man who appears to him 
the best quahfied, and proposes him to the counsellors 
and great men of the town, and if he is approved of by 
them, they appoint him as an assistant in public affairs, 
and he takes his seat on this cabin accordingly. 

The Micco of a town generally bears the name of the 
town, as Cussetuh Mic-co. He is what is called by the 
traders the Cussetuh King. 

2d. Tus-tun-nug-ul-gee in-too-pau, the warriors' cabin. 
This fronts the south ; the head warrior sits at the west 
end of his cabin, and in his division the great warriors sit 
beside each other. The next in rank sit in the centre 
division, and the young warriors in the third. The rise is 
regular, by merit, from the third to the first division. 
The Great Warrior, for that is the title of the head war- 
rior. He is appointed by the micco and counsellors, from 
among the greatest war characters. * 

When a young man is tramed up and appears well 
qualified for the fatigues and hardships of war, and is 
promising, the Mic-co appoints him a governor, or as the 
name imports, a leader^ (Is-te-puc-cau-chau,) and if he 
distinguishes himself, they give him a rise to the centre 
cabin. A man who distinguishes himself, repeatedly, in 
warlike enterprises, arrives to the rank of the Great 
Leader, (Is-te-puc-cau-chau thlucco.) This title, though 
greatly coveted, is seldom attained ; as it requires a long 
course of years, and great and numerous successes in war. 

The second class of warriors is the Tusse-ki-ul-gee. 
All who go to war, and are in company, when a scalp is 
taken, get a war name. The leader reports their con- 
duct, and they receive a name accordingly. This is the 
Tus-se-ki-o-chif-co, or war name. The term leader, as 
used by the Indians, is the proper one. The war parties 
all march in Indian file, with the leader in front, until 
coming on hostile iiround ; he is then in the rear. 

3d. Is-te-chaguc-ul-gee in-too-pau, the cabin of the 
beloved men. This fronts the north. 

There are great men who have been war leaders, and 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 7t' 

who although of various ranks, have become estimable in 
a long course of public service. They sit themselves on 
the right division of the cabin of the Mic-co, and are his 
cousellors. The family of the Mic-co, and great men 
who have thus distinguished themselves, occupy this cabin 
of the beloved men. 

4th. Hut-te-mau-hug-gee in-too-pau, the cabi?i of the 
young people and their associates. This fronts the west. 

The Convention of the Town, 

The Micco, counsellors and warriors, meet every day, 
in the public square ; sit and drink a-cee, a strong decoc- 
tion of the cassine yupon, called by the traders, black 
drink ; talk of news, the public and domestic concerns, 
smoke their pipes, and play Thla-chal-Jitch-cau, (roll the 
bullet.) Here all complaints are introduced, attended 
to, and redressed. They have a regular ceremony for 
making, as well as delivering the a-cee, to all who attend 
the square. 

5th. Chooc-ofau thluc-co, the rotunda or assembly room, 
called by the traders, " hot-house.'''' This is near the 
square, and is constructed after the follov*^ing manner : 
Eight posts are fixed in the ground, forming an octagon 
of thirty feet diameter. They are twelve feet high, and 
large enough to support the roof. On these, five or six 
logs are placed, of a side, drawn in as they rise. On 
these, long poles or rafters, to suit the height of the build- 
ing, are laid, the upper ends forming a point, and the 
lower ends projecting out six feet from the octagon, and 
resting on posts five feet high, placed in a circle round 
the octagon, with plates on them, to which the rafters are 
tied with sphts. The rafters are near together, and f ist- 
ened with sphts. These are covered with clay, and that 
with pine bark ; the wall, six feet from the octagon, is 
clayed up ; they have a small door into a small portico, 
curved round for five or six feet, then into the house. 

The space between the octagon and the wall, is one en- 
tire sopha, where the visiters lie or sit at pleasure. It is 
covered with reed, mat or splits. 

In the centre of the room, on a small rise, the fire is 
made, of dry cane or dry old pine slabs, split fine, and laid 

72 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

in a spiral circle. This is the assembly room for all 
people, old and young ; they assemble every night, and 
amuse themselves with dancing, singing, or conversation. 
And here, sometimes, in very cold weather, the old and 
naked sleep. 

In all transactions which require secrecy, the rulers 
meet here, make their fire, deliberate and decide. When 
they have decided on any case of death or whipping, the 
Micco appoints the warriors who are to carry it into ef- 
fect ; or he gives the judgment to the Great Warrior, 
(Tustunnuggee thlucco,) and leaves to him the time and 
manner of executing it. 


This is always determined on by the Great Warrior. 
When the Micco and counsellors are of opinion that the 
town has been injured, he lifts the war hatchet against the 
nation which has injured them. But as soon as it is taken 
up, the Micco and counsellors may interpose, and by their 
prudent councils, stop it, and proceed to adjust the mis- 
understanding by negotiation. If the Great Warrior per- 
sists and goes out, he is followed by all who are for war. 
It is seldom a town is unanimous, the nation never is ; 
and within the memory of the oldest man among them, it 
is not recollected, that more than one half the nation have 
been for war at the same time ; or taken, as they express 
it, the war talk. 

The Great Warrior, when he marches, gives notice 
where he shall encamp, and sets out sometimes with one 
or two only. He fires off his gun and sets up the war 
whoop. This is repeated by all who follow him, and they 
are sometimes for one or two nights marching off. 


This is always determined on and concluded, by the 
Mic-co and counsellors ; and peace talks are always ad- 
dressed to the cabin of the Mic-co. In some cases, where 
the resentment of the warriors has run high, the Micco 
and council have been much embarrassed. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 73 


A man who wants a wife never applies in person ; he 
sends his sister, his mother, or some other female relation, 
to the female relations of the woman he names. They 
consult the brothers and uncles on the maternal side, and 
sometimes the father ; but this is a compliment only, as 
his approbation or opposition is of no avail. If the party 
applied to, approve of the match, they answer accord- 
ingly, to the woman who made the application. The 
bridegroom then gets together a blanket, and such other 
articles of clothing as he is able to do, and sends them 
by the women to the females of the family of the bride. 
If they accept of them the match is made ; and the man 
may then go to her house as soon as he chooses. And 
when he has built a house, made his crop and gathered it 
in, then made his hunt and brought home the meat, and 
put all this in the possession of his wife, the ceremony 
ends, and they are married ; or as they express it, the 
woman is bound. From the first going to the house of 
the woman, till the ceremony ends, he is completely in 
possession of her. 

This law has been understood differently, by some 
hasty cuckolds, who insist, that when they have assisted 
the woman to plant her crop, the ceremony ends, and the 
woman is bound. A man never marries in his own tribe. 


This is at the choice of either of the parties ; the man 
may marry again as soon as he will ; but she is bound, till 
all the Boosketau of that year are over; excepting in the 
cases of marriage and parting in the season when there 
is no planting, or more properly speaking, during the sea- 
son the man resides at the house of the woman and has 
possession of her, during the continuation of the marriage 
ceremony ; in that case the woman is equally free to con- 
nect herself as soon as she pleases. 

There is an inconsistency in the exception above ; since 

in fact, in such season, there can be no marriage ; but 

the chiefs, on their report on this article, maintained it as 

an exception, and this practice, in these cases of half 


74 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

marriage prevail universally. As soon as a man goes to 
the house of his bride, he is in complete possession of 
her, till the ceremony ends ; and during this period the 
exception will apply. 

Marriage gives no right to the husband over the prop- 
erty of his wife ; and when they part she keeps the chil- 
dren and property belonging to them. 


This is punished by the family or tribe of the husband. 
They collect, consult and decree. If the proof is clear, 
and they determine to punish the offenders, they divide 
and proceed to apprehend them. One half goes to the 
house of the woman, the remainder to the family house 
of the adulterer ; or they go together, as they have de- 
creed. They apprehend the offenders, beat them severely 
with sticks, and then crop them. They cut off the hair 
of the woman, which they carry to the square in triumph. 
If they apprehend but one of the offenders, and the other 
escapes, they then go and take satisfaction from the near- 
est relation. If both the offenders escape, and the tribe or 
family return home, and lay down the sticks, the crime is 
satisfied. There is one family only, the " Wind," (Ho- 
tul-ul-gee,) that can take up the sticks a second time. 
This crime is satisfied in another way, if the parties of- 
fending absent themselves till the Boos-ke-tuh is over. 
Then all crimes are done away except. murder. And the 
bare mention of them, or any occurrence which brings 
them in recollection, is forbidden. 


If murder is committed, the family and tribe alone have 
the right of taking satisfaction. They collect, consult and 
decide. The rulers of the town, or the nation, have 
nothing to do or to say in the business. The relations 
of the murdered person consult first among themselves, 
and if the case is clear, and their family or tribe are not 
likely to suffer by their decision, they determine on the 
case definitively. When the tribe may be effected by it, 
in a doubtful case, or an old claim for satisfaction, the 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 75 

family then consult with their tribe ; and when they have 
deliberated and resolved on satisfaction, they take the 
guilty one, if to be come at. If he flies, they take the 
nearest of kin, or one of the family. In some cases, the 
family which has done the injury promise reparation ; 
and in that case are allowed a reasonable time to fulfil 
their promise ; and they are generally earnest of them- 
selves, in their endeavors to put the guilty to death, to 
save an innocent person. 

This right of judging, and taking satisfaction, being 
vested in the family or tribe, is the sole cause why their 
treaty stipulations on this head, never have been execu- 
ted. In hke manner, a prisoner taken in war, is the pro- 
perty of the captor and his family, it being optional with 
his captor, to kill or save him at the time. And this 
right must be purchased, and it is now the practice, intro- 
duced within a few years, for the nation to pay. The 
practice has been introduced by the agent for Indian af- 
fairs, and he pays on the orders of the chiefs, out of the 
stipend allowed by the United States to the Creeks. 
Claims of this sort of seventeen years standing, where the 
prisoner has been delivered to the order of the chiefs, have 
been revived, allowed and paid. 


This annual festival is celebrated in the months of July 
or August. The precise time is fixed by the Mic-co and 
counsellors, and is sooner or later, as the state of the af- 
fairs of the town, or the early or lateness of their corn, 
will suit for it. In Cussetuh, this ceremony lasts for eight 
days. In some towns of less note, it is but four days. 


In the morning, the warriors clean the yard of the 
square, and sprinkle white sand, when the a-cee, (decoc- 
tion of the cassine yupon,) is made. The fire-maker 
makes the fire as early in the morning as he can, by fric- 
tion. The warriors cut and bring into the square, four 
logs, as long each as a man can cover by extending his 

* See page 25. 

76 A Sketch of the Creek Country, 

two arms ; these are placed in the centre of the square, 
end to end, forming a cross, the outer ends pointed to the 
cardinal points ; in the centre of the cross, the new fire 
is made. During the first four days, they burn out these 
four logs. 

The pin-e-bun-gau, (turkey dance,) is danced by the 
women of the turkey tribe ; and while they are dancing, 
the possau is brewed. This is a powerful emetic. The 
possau is drank from twelve o'clock to the middle of the 
afternoon. After this, the Toc-co-yule-gau, (taapole,) is 
danced by four men and four women. (In the evening, 
the men dance E-ne-hou-bun-gau, the dance of the people 
second in command.) This they dance till daylight. 


This day, about ten o'clock, the women dance Its-ho- 
bun-gau, (gun-dance.) After twelve, the men go to the 
new fire, take some of the ashes, rub them on the chin, 
neck and belly, and jump head foremost into the river, 
and they return into the square. The women having pre- 
pared the new corn for the feast, the men take some of it 
and rub it between their hands, then on their face and 
breasts, and then they feast. 


The men sit in the square. 


The women go early in the morning and get the new 
fire, clean out their hearths, sprinkle them with sand, and 
make their fires. The men finish burning out the first 
four logs, and they take ashes, rub them on their chin, 
neck and belly, and they go into the water. This day 
they eat salt, and they dance Obungauchapco, (the long 


They get four new logs, and place them as on the first 
day, and they drink a-cee, a strong decoction of the cas- 
sine yupon. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 77 


They remain in the square. 


Is spent in hke manner as the sixth. 


They get two large pots, and their physic plants, 1st. 
Mic-co-ho-yon-e-juh. 2. Toloh. 3. A-che-nau. 4. Ciip- 
pau-pos-cau, 5. Chu-lis-sau, the roots. 6. Tuck-thiau- 
lus-te. 7. Tote-cul-hil-lis-so-wau. 8. Chofeinsuck-cau- 
fuck-au. 9. Cho-fe-mus-see. 10. Hil-hs-hut-ke. ll.To-te- 
cuh chooc-his-see. 12. Welau-nuh. 13. Oak-chon-utch- 
co. 14. Co-hal-le-wau-gee. These are all put into the 
pots and heat up with water. The chemists, (E-lic-chul- 
gee, called by the traders physic makers,) they blow in it 
through a small reed, and then it is drank by the men, and 
rubbed over their joints till the afternoon. 

They collect old corn cobs and pine burs, put them into 
a pot, and burn them to ashes. Four virgins who have 
never had their menses, bring ashes from their houses, 
put them in the pot and stir all together. The men take 
white clay and mix it with water in two pans. One pan 
of the clay and one of the ashes, are carried to the cabin 
of the Mic-co, and the other two to that of the warriors. 
They then rub themselves with the clay and ashes. Two 
men appointed to that office, bring some flowers of to- 
bacco of a small kind, (Itch-au-chu-le-puc-pug-gee,) or, 
as the name imports, the old man's tobacco, which was 
prepared on the first day, and put in a pan on the cabin 
of the Mic-co, and they give a httle of it to every one 

The Micco and counsellors then go four times round 
the fire, and every time they face the east, they throw 
some of the flowers into the fire. They then go and 
stand to the west. The warriors then repeat the same 

A cane is stuck up at the cabin of the Mic-co with 
two white featliers in the end of it. One of the Fish 

78 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

tribe, (Thlot-lo-ul-gee,) takes it just as the sun goes down, 
and goes off towards the river, all following him. When 
he gets half way to the river, he gives the death whoop ; 
this whoop he repeats four times, between the square and 
the water's edge. Here they all place themselves as thick 
as they can stand, near the edge of the water. He sticks 
up the cane at the water's edge, and they all put a grain 
of the old man's tobacco on their heads, and in each ear. 
Then, at a signal given, four different times, they throw 
some into the river, and every man at a like signal plunges 
into the river, and picks up four stones from the bottom. 
With these they cross themselves on their breasts four 
times, each time throwing a stone into the river, and giv- 
ing the death whoop ; they then wash themselves, take 
up the cane and feathers, return and stick it up in the 
square, and visit through the town. At night they dance 
0-bun-gau Haujo, (mad dance,) -diii this finishes the cer- 

This happy institution of the Boos-ke-tuh, restores man 
to himself, to his family and to his nation. It is a general 
amnesty, which not only absolves tbe Indians from all 
crimes, murder only excepted, but seems to bury guilt it- 
self in oblivion. 

The Ceremony of initiating Youth into Manhood. 

At the age of from fifteen to seventeen, this ceremony 
is usually performed. It is called Boos-ke-tau, in like 
manner as the annual Boosketau of the nation. A youth 
of the proper age gathers two handsfuU of the Sou-watch- 
cau, a very bitter root, which he eats a whole day ; then 
he steeps the leaves in water and drinks it. In the dusk 
of the evening, he eats two or three spoonfulls of boiled 
grits. This is repeated for four days, and during this 
time he remains in a house. The Sou-watch-cau has the 
effect of intoxicating and maddening. The fourth day he 
goes out, but must put on a pair of new moccasins (Stil- 
la-pica.) For twelve moons, he abstains from eating 
bucks, except old ones, and from turkey cocks, fowls, 
peas and salt. During this period he must not pick his 
ears, or scratch his head with his fingers, but use a small 
stick. For four moons he must have a fire to himself, to 

A Sketch of the Creek Country, 79 

cook his food, and a little girl, a virgin, may cook for 
him ; his food is boiled grits. The fifth moon, any per- 
son may cook for him, but he must serve himself first, 
and use one spoon and pan. Every new moon, he drinks 
for four days the possau, (button snakeroot,) an emetic, 
and abstains for these days, from all food, except in the 
evening, a little boiled grits, (humpetuh hutke.) The 
twelfth moon, he performs for four days, what he com- 
menced with on the first. The fifth day, he comes out 
of his house, gathers corn cobs, burns them to ashes, and 
with these, rubs his body all over. At the end of this 
moon, he sweats under blankets, then goes into water, 
and this ends the ceremony. This ceremony is some- 
times extended to four, six, or eight moons, or even to 
twelve days only, but the course is the same. 

During the whole of this ceremony, the physic is ad- 
ministered by the Is-te-puc-cau-chau thluc-co, (great 
leader,) who in speaking of a youth under initiation, says, 
" I am physicing him," (Boo-se-ji-jite saut li-to-mise-cha,) 
or " I am teaching him all that is proper for him to know," 
(nauk o-mul-gau e-muc-e-thli-jite saut litomise cha.) 
The youth, during this initiation, does not touch any one 
except young persons, who are under a like course with 
himslf, and if he dreams, he drinks the possau. 

War Physic, Ho-ith-le Hil-lis-so-wau. 

When young men are going to war, they go into a hot- 
house of the town made for the purpose, and remain 
there for four days. They drink the Mic-co-ho-yon-e-jau 
and the pos-sau, and they eat the Sou-watch-cau. The 
fourth day, they come out, have their bundle ready, and 
march. This bundle or knapsack, is an old blanket, some 
parched corn flour, and leather to patch their moccasins. 
They have in their shot bags, a charm, a protection 
against all ills, called the war physic, composed of chit- 
to gab-by and Is-te-pau-pau, the bones of the snake and 

The tradition of this physic is, that in old times, the 
lion, (Is-te-pau-pau,) devoured their people. They dug a 
pit and caught him in it, just after he had killed one of 

80 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

their people. They covered him with hghtwood knots, 
burnt him and reserved his bones. 

The snake was in the water, the old people sung and 
he showed himself. They sung again, and he showed 
himself a little out of the water. The third time he 
showed his horns, and they cut one ; again he showed 
himself a fourth time, and they cut off the other horn. 
A piece of these horns and of the bones of the lion, is 
the great war physic. 

The opinion of Efau Haujo, great Medal Chief of Took- 
au-bat-che, and Speaker for the Nation in the National 
Council^ on these Ceremonies, given in answer to some 
queries put to him. 

1st. What is the origin of the new fire, and of the 
Boosketau ? Answer. I have been taught from my infancy, 
that there is an E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-see, (master of breath,) 
who gave these customs to the Indians, as necessary to 
them and suited to them ; and that to follow them, en- 
tities the red people to his care and protection, in war 
and difficulties. It is our opinion that the origin of the 
Boosketau and our physics, proceeds from the goodness 
of Esaugetuh E-mis-see ; that he communicated them in 
old times to the red people, and impressed it on them to 
follow and adhere to them, and they would be of service 
to them. 

2d. Do the red people believe in a future existence ? 
Answer. The old notion among us, is, that when we die, 
the spirit, (po-yau-fic-ciiau,) goes the way the sun goes, 
to the west, and there joins its family and friends, who 
went before it. 

3rd. Do the red people believe in a future state of rewards 
and punishments ? Answer. We have an opinion that those 
w^ho behaved well, are taken under the care of E-sau-ge- 
tuh E-mis-see and assisted ; and that those who have be- 
haved ill, are left there to shift for themselves ; and that 
there is no other punishment. 

4th. What is your opinion of retaliation, as practised 
among the Indians ; can it be just to punish the innocent 
for the guilty ; and do you believe that this custom of the 
Indians proceeded from E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-see ? Answer. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country, 81 

I believe our custom did not proceed from E-sau-ge-tuh 
E-mis-see, but from tlie temper of rash men, who do not 
consider consequences before they act. It is a bad cus- 

5th. What is your opinion of the custom of the red 
people, to punish for accidental death, with the same se- 
verity, as where there has been a manifest intention to 
kill ? Answer. This custom of ours is a bad one, blood 
for blood ; but I do not believe it came from E-sau-ge- 
tuh E-mis-see, but proceeded from ourselves. Of a case 
of this sort, I will give you my opinion, by my conduct. 
Lately, in Tookaubatche, two promising boys were play- 
ing and slinging stones. One of them let slip his sling, 
the stone flew back and killed his companion. The family 
of the deceased took the two boys, and were preparing 
to bury them in the same ajrave. The uncles, who have 
the right to decide in such cases, were sent for, and I was 
sent for. We arrived at the same time. I ordered the 
people to leave the house, and the two boys to remain 
together. I took the uncles to my house, raised their 
spirits with a little rum, and told them, the boy was a fine 
boy, and would be useful to us in our town, when he be- 
came a man ; that he had no ill will against the dead one ; 
the act was purely accidental ; that it had been the will 
of E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis-se to end his days, and I thought 
that the living one should remain, as taking away his life 
would not give it to the other. The two uncles, after 
some reflection, told me, as you have advised us, so we 
will act ; he shall not die, it was an accident. 

The Opinion of Tus-se-kiah Mic-co, on the Origin of the 
Creeks, and the New Fire. 

" There are in the forks of Red river, (We-cha-te-hat- 
che Au-fus-kee,) west of Mississippi, (We-o-coof-ke, 
muddy water,) two mounds of earth. At this place, the 
Cussetuh, Cowetuh and Chickasaws found themselves. 
They were at a loss for fire. Here they were visited by the 
Hi-you-yul-gee, four men who came from the four corners 
of the world. One of these people asked the Indians, 
where they would have their fire, (tote-kit-cau.) They 
pointed to a place ; it was made ; and they sat down 

82 A Sketch of the Creek Country, 

around it. The Hi-you-yul-gee directed, that they should 
pay particular attention to the fire, that it would preserve 
them and let E-sau-ge-tuh E-mis see, (master of breath,) 
know their wants. One of these visitors took them and 
showed them the pas-sau; another showed them Mic-co- 
ho yon-ejau, then the Au-che-nau, (cedar,) and Too-loh, 
(sweet bay.) [There are one or two other plants, not 
recollected. Each of these seven plants was to belong 
to a particular tribe,] (E-mau-li-ge-tuh.) After this, the 
four visiters disappeared in a cloud, going from whence 
they came." 

" The three towns then appointed their rulers. The 
Cussetuhs chose the Noo-coose-ul-gee, (bear tribe,) to 
be their Mic-ul-gee, (mic-cos,) and the Is-tau-nul-gee, to 
be the E-ne-hau-thluc-ul-gee, (people second in com- 
mand.) The Cowetuhs chose the Thlot-lo-ul-gee, (fish 
tribe,) to be their Mic-ul-gee, (miccos.") 

" After these arrangements, some other Indians came 
from the west, met them, and had a great wrestle with the 
three towns ; they made ball sticks and played with them, 
with bows and arrows, and the war club, (Au-tus-sau.) 
They fell out, fought, and killed each other. After this 
warring, the three towns moved eastwardly, and they met 
the Au-be-cuh at Coosau river. Here they agreed to go 
to war for four years, against their first enemy ; they 
made shields, (Te-po-lux-o,) of Buftalo hides, and it was 
agreed that the warriors of each town, should dry and 
bring forward, the scalps (E-cau halpe) of the enemy 
and pile them ; the Aubecuh had a small pile, the Chick- 
asaws were above them, the Cowetuhs above them, and 
the Cussetuhs above all. The two last towns raised the 
scalp pole, (Itlo chate, red wood,) and do not suffer any 
other town to raise it. Cussetuh is first in rank." 

" After this, they settled the rank of the four towns 
among themselves. Cussetuh, called Au-be-cuh and Chick- 
asaw cha-chu-see, (younger brothers.) The Chickasaws 
and Aubecuhs, called Cussetuh and Cowetuh, chat-la-hau, 
(oldest brothers.) Au-be-cuh, called Chickasaw, Um- 
mau-mau-yuh, (elders, or people a head of them.) Chick- 
asaws sometimes use the same expression to Aubecuh." 

This being done, they commenced their settlements on 
Coo-sau and Tal-la-poo-sau, and crossing the falls of Tal- 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 83 

lapoosa above Tool-cau-bat-che, they visited the Chat-to- 
hoche, and found a race of people with flat heads, in 
possession of the mounds in the Cussctuh fields. These 
people used bows and arrows, with strings made of sinews. 
The great physic makers, (Au-lic-chul-gee,) sent some 
rats in the night time, which gnawed the strings, and in 
the morning, they attacked and defeated the flats. They 
crossed the river at the island, near the mound, and took 
possession of the country. After this, they spread out 
eastwardly, to 0-cheese-hat-che, (Ocmulgee,) Oconee, 
O-ge-chee, (How-ge-chuh,) Chic-ke-tal-lo-fau-hat-che, 
(Savannah,) called sometimes Sau-va-no-gee, the name 
for Shaw-a-nee. They met the white people on the sea- 
coast, who drove them back to their present situation." 

" Cussetuh and Chickasaw consider themselves as peo- 
ple of one fire, (tote-kit-cau humgoce,) from the earliest 
account of their origin. Cussetuh appointed the first 
Micco for them, directed him to sit down in the bis Sa- 
vanna, where they now are, and govern them. Some of 
the Chickasaws straggled off and settled near Augusta, 
from whence they returned and sat down near Cussetuh, 
and thence back to their nation. Cussetuh and Chicka- 
saw have remained friends ever since their first ac- 

During the late war between the Creeks and Chicka- 
saws, Cussetuh refused her aid, and retained her long es- 
tablished friendship for the Chickasaws ; and when the 
Creeks offered to make peace, their oflfers were rejected, 
till Cussetuh interposed their good offices. These had 
the desired effect, and produced peace. 

State of the War Party in September, 1813. 

Oc-fus-kee, Aut-tos-see. 

These towns formed a front of observation towards 

Ho-ith-le-wau-lee, Coo-loo-me, 

Foosce-hat-che, E-cun-hut-kee, 

84 A Sketch of the Creek Country. 

Sau-van-no-gee, We-wo-cau, 

Mook-lau-sau, Puc-cun-tal-lau has-see, 

A-la-ba-mo, Woc-co-coie, 

Hook-choie-oo-che, Po-chuse-hat-che. 

These towns furnished the warriors for the expedition 
against Tensau. They did not intend an expedition 
against the white people till they compelled Cowetau and 
Tookaubatchee to join or fly the nation, and every town 
to join with them. But being attacked by the half breeds 
and whites, at Burnt Corn, in their own land, they deter- 
mined to retaliate, and planned the expedition accord- 

Thlot-lo-gul-gau, Ki-a-li-je, 


These are neutral. Ho-bo-kei-eth-le Haujo, hearing 
that the war party intended to cut off Kialije, sent word 
he had warriors, and would fight for Kialijee. This last 
town has taken the war club, and dance the prophets 
dances, and are used as spies on the war party. 

Too-to-gau-gee, Au-che-nau ulgau. 

These are at Tookaubatche Tal-lau-has-see. Chat- 
tuck-so-cau is above Oc-fus-kee and with it. 

This settlement is on the east of Tallapoosa, on a wide 
creek which gives name to it, twelve miles nearly from 
the river. 

From Burges's 30 miles above the mouth of the river Flint, 
To We-thluc-coo-chee, 16 miles, 20 yards wide. 
0-ke-lock-ei-me, 1 8 miles, 30 yds wide, and deep. 

St. Marks, 40 miles, half a mile wide. 

Aussille, 40 miles, 50 yards wide, shallow. 

Sawaune, 70 miles, 120 yards wide. 

Picaulata, 130 miles, two miles wide. 

St. Augustine, 26 miles. 

A Sketch of the Creek Country. 


Information relative to the waters and country on the 
post road, commencing at Ka-le-be, near the agency on 
that creek. 



Miles. Width in feet. 

4 30 

2 60 

Noo-coose Chepo, 2 






1 St Fork of, 

2d do 





Murder Creek, 8 

Burnt Corn, 12 

Limestone, 5 

Little Escambia, 4 

Big Escambia, 9 


















lands post oak, clay, good 

range for stock. 
post oak, small hickory, clay, 

red oak. 
post oak, plains, clay, red oak. 
post, black oak, plains, clay. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

oak, hickory, chesnut, water 

first pine land, left 4 by 5 

miles, clay, 
oak, hickory, walnut, 
pine ridge to Ko-ne-cau, wide 

in places, 10 to 15 miles 

level clay land, 
a belt of pine land 5 by 4 

miles, clay, 
between these creeks on the 

a small branch of Alabama, 
waters of Ko-ne-cau. 

do. do. 

The pine lands commence near Burnt Corn, around the 
head of Limestone, to the two Escambias, and to Ko-ne- 
cau. Half way from Burnt Corn to Little Escambia, the 
pine land loses the quality of clay, and is sandy, the pine 
tall and large. 



By Sir James Wright and JoH>f Stewart, with the Cherokees and Creeks. 

This treaty fixes the eastern bounds of the Cherokees to be from the 
tree marked by the Cherokees, near the head of a branch falling into the 
Oconee river, and from thence to Savannah river. 


From Tugalo river, " thence a direct line to the top of Currohe moun- 
tain ; thence to the head of the South fork of Oconee river." 

In 1803, at the treaty near Fort Wilkinson, this boundary admitted by 
the Creeks, and that a line from the High Shoals of Apalatche, along the 
old path to Sauwanna, on Chat-to-ho-che, bounds the Creek claims on 
this quarter. 


Article III. 

" The Creek Nation shall deliver, as soon as practicable, to the com- 
manding officer of the troops of the United States, stationed at the Rock- 
landing on the Oconee river, all citizens of the United States, white in- 
habitants or negroes, who are now prisoners in any part of said nation. 
And if any such prisoners or negroes should not be so delivered on or before 
the 1st day of June ensuing, the Governor of Georgia may empower 
three persons to repair to the sard Nation in order to claim and receive 
such prisoners and negroes.^' 

88 Appendix. 

Treaty at colerain, june 29, 1796. 

Article VII. 

" The Creek Nation shall deliver, as soon as practicable, to the Super- 
intendent of Indian affairs, at such place as he may direct, all citizens 
of the United States, white inhabitants and negroes, who are now pris- 
oners in any part of the said Nation, agreeable to the treaty of New 
York, and also all citizens, white inhabitants, negroes and property taken 
since the signing of that treaty. And if any such prisoners, negroes or 
property should not be delivered, on or before the first day of January 
next, the Governor of Georgia may empower three persons to repair to 
the said Nation, in order to claim and receive such prisoners, negroes, 
and property, under the direction of the President of the United States." 




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